31 SES 09, Language in Transnational Educational Fields between Brazil and Europe
The contributions of this symposium will explore the interplay between language(s) and education in transnational spaces and its implications for transnational educational fields between Brazil and Europe. Since the early 2000s, transnational education has become a topic of central interest for researchers, practitioners and policy makers (Waters und Brooks 2011). Research in this field focuses on higher education, with less emphasis on private international schools that may be considered part of a globalised educational market (Adick 2005; Hayden 2011). Global languages, predominantly English, are a prerequisite for participation in these educational markets. This acts as an impediment for those who cannot afford to acquire the language capital and reinforces already existing language hegemonies. The globalisation of education entrenches – not only in the sociolinguistic sense – “new modes of reproducing social inequality in education” (Zanten van, 2005). In the research as well in practice the term “transnational education” appears to be reserved for social elites. Until now the discourse on transnational education has not explored the extent to which non-elite migrant families also promote the acquisition of the “human capital” needed to gain access to transnational educational fields. A few studies indicate that transnational mobility may also be a strategy of social advancement for young people from non-elite migrant families (Fürstenau 2008). Mainstream schools, however, rarely prepare their students for transnational careers. If teenagers from social minorities manage to turn their migration-related multilingual competencies into cultural capital on the labour market, then this success is mainly due to their transnational language biographies and to informal language courses offered by their ethnic communities, rather than to formal schooling. Many migrant families invest time and money in their children’s future, providing opportunities to study heritage languages and mobility within transnational social spaces.
Poverty and social inequality in Brazilian society have been important drivers of migration between Brazil and Europe since the 1980s, but at the same time there has been labour migration of qualified employees from social elites (Evans et al. 2013). Some studies point to the high costs of a quality education in Brazil as a reason to migrate or to stay at the host countries of migration (DeBiaggi 2002; Fürstenau 2015). Education is of course the key motivation of Brazilian international students migrating to other countries. According to its own figures, the Brazilian government student mobility programme Ciências sem Fronteiras has sent about 101,000 students to tertiary institutions abroad in the last four years. The main destination is the United States, while in Europe Brazilian students favour the United Kingdom, France and Germany.
Migration between Brazil and Europe gives rise to social heterogeneous educational spaces. These should be viewed as the result of transnational educational provisions for social elites and related to the educational careers of young people from non-elite migrant families – i.e. as the result of transnationalisation processes “from above” and “from below” (Guarnizo und Smith 1998). The study of language in educational spaces provides insights into the multiple ways in which these processes (from above and below) influence each other. As in other contexts, transnational educational spaces constitute “linguistic markets” (Bourdieu) in which the social value of the speaker and of his language is mutually shaped. The empirical studies discussed in this symposium approach the linguistic markets of transnational educational spaces between Brazil and Europe from different perspectives. Exploring the different functions and ascribed values of different languages and multilingual capacities, they discuss the impact of transnational language practices on public education within nation-states and highlight the challenges of educational and linguistic policies.
 Ciência sem Fronteiras http://www.cienciasemfronteiras.gov.br/web/csf/o-programa, retrieved October 10, 2015
ADICK, Christel (2005): Transnationalisierung als Herausforderung für die International und Interkulturell Vergleichende Erziehungswissenschaft. Tertium comparationis, 11, 2: 243–269. DEBIAGGI, Sylvia Duarte Dantas (2002): Changing gender roles: Brazilian immigrant families in the U.S. The new Americans, New York: LFB Scholarly Pub. EVANS, Yara; TONHATI, Tânia und SOUZA, Ana (2013): Imigrantes Brasileiras pelo Mundo – Female Brazilian Migrants around the World. London: Grupo de Estudos sobre Brasileiros no Reino Unido, University of London, URL http://geblondon.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/imigrantes-brasileiras-pelo-mundo-2013-1.pdf. FÜRSTENAU, Sara (2008): Transnationalität und Bildung. In HOMFELDT, Hans-Günther; SCHRÖER, Wolfgang und SCHWEPPE, Cornelia (Hg.) Soziale Arbeit und Transnationalität: Herausforderungen eines spannungsreichen Bezugs, Weinheim: Juventa, 203–218. FÜRSTENAU, Sara (2015): Educação transnacional e posicionamento social entre o Brasil e a Europa. Um estudo qualitativo com famílias migrantes. In BAHIA, Joana und SANTOS, Miriam (Hg.) MIgraçoes, redes e trajétorias entre a Alemanha e o Brasil, Porto Alegre: Letra e Vida, 69–86. HAYDEN, Mary (2011): Transnational spaces of education: the growth of the international school sector. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 9, 2: 211–224. WATERS, Johanna und BROOKS, Rachel (2011): International/transnational spaces of education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 9, 2: 155–160.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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