09 SES 06 A, The Relations Between Teacher Quality, Instructional Quality and Student Outcome And Their Roles In The Context Of School Climate
Researchers have long known that teachers and their instruction matters (Baumert et al., 2010; Klieme, Pauli, & Reusser, 2009; Seidel & Shavelson, 2007), and that school climate sets the premises for learning and instruction (Wang & Degol, 2015).
However, establishing this importance empirically, and especially across nations, calls for research that takes into account: 1) the complexity of educational systems with many hierarchical layers and interwoven relationships ; 2) the complexity of relationships within each layer with direct and indirect effects; 3) the variation of these relationships across countries; and 4) their dynamic development over time (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2008). Taking these perspectives into account, it becomes obvious that serious research gaps exist with respect to the relation between school climate, teachers, teaching, and student outcomes.
To this end, International Large Scale Assessment (ILSA) provides golden opportunities. TIMSS is the only ILSA that allows researchers to investigate all three levels; student, class and school level.
Using data from TIMSS, this symposium aims to study the relations between School climate, Teacher Quality (TQ), Instructional Quality (InQua) and student outcomes across cohorts, time and countries from all continents.
TQ may be seen to comprise teacher qualifications (e.g. education, experience, and professional development) and teacher characteristics (e.g. motivation, confidence, self-efficacy, and beliefs)(e.g. Goe, 2007). In mathematics, TQ is important to both InQua and to student achievement in mathematics (Baumert et al., 2010; Darling-Hammond & Youngs, 2002).
InQua is a concept that reflects the aspects of teachers’ instruction that are known to be positively related to student outcomes, both achievement and motivation (Fauth, Decristan, Rieser, Klieme, & Büttner, 2014; Seidel & Shavelson, 2007). It is argued that the four dimensions clarity of instruction, cognitive activation, classroom management, and supportive climate, are essential features of high teaching quality (Klieme et al., 2009; Seidel & Shavelson, 2007).
While InQua may influence students learning and motivation directly, school climate set the premises for instruction and may hence influence learning both directly and indirectly (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2008; Wang & Degol, 2015). In a recent review of school climate Wang and Degol (2015) observed that certain aspects may be said to be key aspects. In this symposium we include the key aspects “Academic climate” and a “Safe and Orderly climate” as these are found to be positively related to learning outcomes (Wang & Degol, 2015).
The studies in this symposium use data from TIMSS 2011 and 2007. All countries who participated are included, and the studies use student (grade 4 and 8) and teacher questionnaires. The methods of analysis are two-level (student and classes) structural equation modelling with CFA, and Differences in Differences.
Structure of the symposium:
In the present symposium we include 3 studies presented in the following order:
- Effects of teacher quality and instructional quality on student achievement
- The Impact of School Climate and TQ on Student Achievement: A Difference-in-Differences Approach using country-level longitudinal data
- The Relations among School Climate, InQua, and Achievement Motivation: A Case for the Mediating Role of Instructional Quality?
Baumert, J., Kunter, M., Blum, W., Brunner, M., Voss, T., et al. (2010). Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge, Cognitive Activation in the Classroom, and Student Progress. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1), 133-180. Creemers, B., & Kyriakides, L. (2008). The dynamics of educational effectiveness. Abingdon: Routledge. Darling-Hammond, L., & Youngs, P. (2002). Defining" highly qualified teachers": What does" scientifically-based research" actually tell us? Educational researcher, 13-25. Fauth, B., Decristan, J., Rieser, S., Klieme, E., & Büttner, G. (2014). Student ratings of teaching quality in primary school: Dimensions and prediction of student outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 29, 1-9. Goe, L. (2007). The Link between Teacher Quality and Student Outcomes: A Research Synthesis. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Klieme, E., Pauli, C., & Reusser, K. (2009). The pythagoras study: Investigating effects of teaching and learning in Swiss and German mathematics classrooms. In T. Janik & T. Seidel (Eds.), The power of video studies in investigating teaching and learning in the classroom (pp. 137-160). New York: Waxmann. Seidel, T., & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Teaching effectiveness research in the past decade: The role of theory and research design in disentangling meta-analysis results. Review of Educational Research, 77(4), 454-499. Wang, M.-T., & Degol, J. L. (2015). School Climate: a Review of the Construct, Measurement, and Impact on Student Outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 1-38.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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