31 SES 10 B, Valorisation and Integration of Multilingualism in Educational Systems
In consequence of globalization, transnational interrelations and migration, multilingualism is on the rise and many children and young people in European countries grow up speaking more than one language.
In most countries, the school success of children from linguistic minorities is below average (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000). Deficits in the majority language are often identified as one of the determining factors for the disadvantages of migrant students affecting their success in school. In this context multilingualism is deemed a ‘risk factor’ for educational success, although the causal relationship between multilingualism and educational disadvantages is not proved. On the contrary: There is scientific consensus about the finding that children can transfer linguistic and cognitive competencies between their languages (‘Interdependence Hypothesis’) if they are allowed to make use of their complete linguistic and conceptual repertoire in formal learning contexts (Baker 2011, p. 293; Cummins 2000, p. 38). But children from linguistic minorities obviously aren’t currently benefitting from their multilingual socialization.
In our symposium we will look at multilingualism and education from a sociopolitical perspective. This perspective shows that the lack of school success among children from linguistic minorities has to do with the widespread negative evaluation of their linguistic and cultural practices, in educational as well as in general contexts of social hierarchy. In the present situation, children from linguistic minorities often learn at school that “they are supposed to replace their (socially worthless) family language as soon as possible with the prestigious second language” (Niedrig 2011, p. 93, ad-hoc translation from the German). In order to enable children to use their complete linguistic repertoire and furthermore to welcome them and their families and to encourage them to participate in education and society it is therefore necessary to valorise minority languages. Consequently, the sociopolitical argument for the constructive inclusion of minority languages in formal education is students’ need to enhance their social status: “The school (...) gives the minority language status, esteem and market value to its students” (Baker 2011, p. 285).
In our symposium we will ask how schools and other educational institutions can valorise minority languages. The contributions are based on a theoretical framework that understands language as a social practice and reflects on the linguistic market from the perspective of social spaces (Bourdieu 1990, Coupland 2010, Blommaert 2010). They will describe the linguistic market and status of linguistic minorities and focus on transformations brought about by intervention in schools, pre-schools and teacher education. The contributions refer to concrete projects, and present findings from scientific monitoring and evaluation of these projects. Results from quantitative as well as qualitative data will be presented.
The contributions consider the question of valorising minority languages from three national perspectives. National educational systems have different traditions and deal with multilingualism in different ways, depending on their own multilingual or monolingual history. The national contexts of the presented papers vary greatly: From a bilingual country (Finland) to a postcolonial society (Great Britain) and a traditionally monolingual society in a country which is becoming increasingly one of immigration (Germany). The discussion afterwards will provide opportunities to debate and compare different ways of dealing with multilingualism.
Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Bourdieu, P. (1990). Was heißt sprechen? Die Ökonomie des sprachlichen Tausches. Wien: Braumüller. Blommaert, J. (2010): The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cummins, J. (2000). Language, Power and Pedagogy. Bilingual Children in the Crossfire. Clevedon et al.: Multilingual Matters. Coupland, N. (ed., 2010): The Handbook of Language and Globalisation. Massachusetts, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Niedrig, H. (2011). Unterrichtsmodelle für Schülerinnen und Schüler aus sprachlichen Minderheiten. In: Fürstenau, S. & Gomolla, M. (Hrsg.): Migration und schulischer Wandel: Mehrsprachigkeit. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag, pp. 89-106. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2000). Linguistic genocide in education or worldwide diversity and human rights? Mahwah und London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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