04 SES 01 A, School Wide Inclusive Education
Commitment to school integration (and ban of all forms of segregation) has become the general principle of the educational policy. There is rather lot of political and academic criticism of segregation of pupils with specific educational needs (SEN) in special schools in Slovakia. Comparatively less attention is given to situation and prospects of children with SEN who already attend standard schools. General school legislation stipulates adaptation of educational process to heterogeneous needs of pupils (School Act No.245/2008). It has however said nothing about next conditions that are fundamental for setting up the school environment in which all children could feel welcome and accepted.
It is now accepted that inclusive education is more than simply 'integration' of pupils with SEN in standard stream of education. The authors of this proposal belong to those concerned with the issue of comprehensive (systemic, community, interactional) conditions that are necessary for developing an education system in which tolerance, diversity and equity are striven for” (Skidmore 2004).
The aim of the proposed presentation is to contribute to the understanding why daily practice of school integration is far from contributing to inclusive atmosphere in the class and why the teachers fail to follow the inclusive philosophy they declare in the questionnaire. In doing so, we will lean against the findings of the multi-method research done in the Slovak elementary schools that was aimed at identifying forms of daily practice of social inclusion and in-school and out-school conditions and factors, which could support or hinder full acceptance of pupils with SEN by their teachers and class-mates. The research was framed by Booth and Ainscow’s concept of inclusion as „decreasing barriers to learning process and inclusion in education of all individual students“ and as „building relations on the principle of cooperation“ (Booth - Ainscow 2007: 4) Ethnographic part of the research was guided by the symbolic interactionistic perspective and by the concepts of sociology of everyday life and J. H. Turner’ synthetic theory of structuration of social interaction (1989) , face-keeping (E. Goffman), moral organisation of action through attributing responsibility, blaming and praising (Jayyusi 1991) and concepts of moral inclusion or exclusion (S. Opotow). This conceptual framework helps us grasp and examine factors of maintaining interaction order as well as subversive processes such as escaping from or transgressing oppressive everydayness.
Presentation will start with a short outline of the methodology used. Then it will introduce findings of the quantitative surveys and afterwards the findings from ethnographic research in classes. The third part of the presentation will be devoted to the main conclusions based on the comparative analysis and provided with the evidence/illustrations.
The special attention is given to the practices of teachers striving to sustain of attention of all pupils to teaching such as introducing competitive elements, encouraging pupils to play the role of teachers and their intervention (or its holding up) into pupils’ interactions that could have marginalising or excluding effects on pupils with SEN.
BOOTH, Tony, AINSCOW, Mel 2007. Ukazatel inkluze. Rozvoj učení a zapojení ve školách. Občanské sdružení Rytmus. GOFFMAN, Erving., 1979 (1963). Stigma. Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Penguin Books. MAHAT, Marian, 2008. The Development of a Psychometrically-Sound Instrument Instrument to Measure Teachers’s Multidimensional Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education. International Journal of Special Education 23 (1) 82 - 92 NUCEM (National Institute for Certified Educational Measurements). Increasing the Quality of Primary and Secondary Education with the Use of Electronic Testing. Research Project 2013-2015 http://www.etest.sk/news/ OPPOTOW, Susane, 1990. Moral Exclusion and Social Injustice. An Introduction. Journal of Social Issues 46 (1), 1 – 20. PARIS, Django, 2012. Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy: A Needed Change in Stance, Terminology, and Practice. Educational Researcher 41 (3) 93-97 SKIDMORE, David, 2004. Inclusion: the dynamic of school development. Maidenhead : Open University Press. TURNER, H. Jonathan, 1989. Theory of Social Interaction. Stanford University Press.
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