ERG SES E 10, Teachers and Education
This research is associated with the Observatory of Life in Schools of the Centre for Research and Intervention in Education of the University of Porto, Portugal. The participants are teachers of the 1st cycle of basic education understood as privileged partners in the development of an artistic and cultural education, with the main aim of contributing to deepen knowledge on the role of 1ºCEB teachers in the development of expressions and their contribution to artistic literacy in basic education.
The work of the expressions' education and their contribution to the development of artistic literacy at the lower levels of education is a subject that has not been taken as a priority in Portugal, despite the studies and international recommendations (EACEA, 2009). The research that has been produced on the factors that influence this development has been pointed out that the important factors are the teachers, but there are few studies on the subject in Portugal (Ribeiro et al., 1997; Madoff, 2009; Caldas & Vasques, 2014; Tormenta, 2015).
The goal of this research is to collect the perceptions of the participating teachers about the specificity of expressions’ education (pedagogical work in the area of expressions) that they develop as teachers of this level of education.
The characterization of the teaching profile of the 1st CEB related to the cultural and historical moments, which make the relevance of this level of education, is one of the aims of this research, will include up to four main landmarks in Portugal [Schools Primary Teaching (Portuguese dictatorship); April 25th Revolution, 1974 (social and cultural revolutionary movement); Emergence of Superior Schools of Education (professional training); OECD impositions]. The teaching profession during professional training in Primary Teaching was seen as an isolated figure that would should not to know more than the institutional orders (Nóvoa 1992). The professional has succeeded, with the April 1974 revolution, to renew itself along with a culturally critical society, and with the education of expressions on a special place in pedagogical work. The next times they were mainly to improve and develop the professional training of primary school teachers, which led to transformations of the professional identity (Nóvoa, 1992; Hargreaves, 1998; Lopes & Pereira, 2012; Mouraz, Leite & Fernandes, 2014).
It is also a goal of this research to identify the curricular trends and constraints underlying the curriculum of the 1st cycle, seen as an ongoing process that occurs due to several decisions, in different contexts (Schön, 2000; Leite, 2005). The curriculum of the 1st cycle reveals the idea of an opening between programme areas, in which the teacher is seen as the one responsible for managing the time and content to teach and may be assisted by other expert teachers (Law-Decree: 91/2013).
The ultimate goal and the main purpose of this research are concerned with the characterization of the place of the expressions' education in curriculum work of the 1st cycle (showing the existence of some clashes) regardless clarify what is meant by "expression", encompassing physical, dramatic, visual, plastic and musical areas (Dewey, 1934; Freedman, 1997; Gardner, 1995). The curricular work that promotes expressions' education with students is the basis of a learning-centered development of the child where they can create meaning from their manifestations.
Bardin, Laurence (2011). Análise de Conteúdo. Edições 70: Lisboa. Caldas, Ana Pereira & Vasques, Eugénia (2014). Educação Artística para um Currículo de Excelência: projecto-piloto para o 1º ciclo do ensino básico. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian: Clube Unesco de Educação Artística Dewey, John (1934). Art as Experience. New York: Capricon Books EACEA (2009). Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Agência de Execução relativa à Educação, ao Audiovisual e à Cultura. EURYDICE: Bruxelas Freedman, Kerry (1997). Cultural Associations and Communication: Students’ constructions of meaning in response to visual images. International Journal of Art and Design Education, 16(3), 269-272 Gardner, Howard (1995). Mentes creativas. Barcelona: Ed. Paidós. Hargreaves, Andy (1998). Os Professores em Tempos de Mudança. O trabalho e a cultura dos professores na idade pós-moderna. Porto: Porto Editora. Leite, Carlinda (Ed.). (2005). Mudanças curriculares em Portugal: Transição para o século XXI. Porto: Porto Editora. Lopes, Amélia & Pereira, Fátima (2012). Everyday life and everyday learning: the ways in which pre-service teacher education curriculum can encourage personal dimensions of teacher identity, European Journal of Teacher Education, 35:1, 17-38, DOI: 10.1080/02619768.2011.633995 Madoff, Steven (2009). ART School: Propositions for the 21st century. Leading international artists and art educators consider the challenges of art education in today's dramatically changed art world. MIT Press Mouraz, Ana, Leite, Carlinda & Fernandes, Preciosa (2014). A formação inicial de professores em Portugal decorrente do Processo de Bolonha: uma análise a partir do “olhar” de professores e de estudantes. Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia, (46-2), 189- 209. Nóvoa, António (1992). Para uma formação de professores construída dentro da profissão. In Nóvoa, A. (Coord.). Os professores e a sua formação. Lisboa: Dom Quixote: 13-33. Ribeiro, Agostinho, Lopes, Amélia, Pereira, Fátima, Barbosa, Luísa, Fidalgo, Manuela, Sousa, Marília (1997). Projeto Cria-se: educar e formar para a criatividade. Porto: Afrontamento. Rudolph, Sophie & Wright, Susan (2015). Drawing out the value of the visual: children and young people theorizing time through art and narrative, Journal of Curriculum Studies. DOI: 10.1080/00220272.2015.1006685 Schön, Donald (2000). Educando o Profissional Reflexivo: um novo design para o ensino e aprendizagem. Porto Alegre: Artmed Tormenta, José Rafael (2015). Expressões Artísticas e Educação Básica: Oportunidades, Capacidades e Realidades. (cedência de autor) Portugal. Decreto-Lei n.º 139/2012, 5 de Junho. Ministério da Educação e Ciência Portugal. Decreto-Lei n.º 91/2013 de 10 de Julho. Ministério da Educação e Ciência
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