09 SES 03 C, A Spotlight on Latin America
This study investigates principal`s turnover conditioning factors and impacts in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro from 2005 to 2015. In Rio de Janeiro´s public school system principals are assigned to elementary schools through election procedures that take place every three years. In 2009, the municipality has adopted new policies that have increased pressure on school principals including: high stakes school accountability policy (i.e. bonus payment), support programs for low performing schools and exams requirements for teachers to be eligible for principals’ elections (KOSLINSKI; PORTELA; ANDRADE, 2014). The paper observes the patterns of principals’ turnover before and after the introduction of school accountability policies in Rio de Janeiro´s school system and investigates whether performance in school assessment systems and pressures from school accountability is associated to principals’ turnover. It also investigates the impact of principals´ change on students’ achievement in low performing schools.
International literature has been pointing out that principals´ turnover is usually associated to labor conditions such as salary, working day, institutional responsibilities, labour stress, principals lack of autonomy, bureaucracy and students demographic characteristics (DeANGELIS; WHITE, 2008; HERTLING, 2001; LADD; ZELLI, 2001; NI; SUN; RORRER, 2013; PAPA, 2007; PARTLOW, 2007; SHEPPARD, 2010). Moreover, many studies have claimed that school accountability policies have led to increase in principals´ turnover, as an unintended consequence, especially in contexts where school accountability design is not able to adequately measure school effectiveness and, thus, it holds principals accountable for factors beyond their control (LADD, 2001). On one hand, principals’ turnover investigation becomes relevant considering the studies that observe significant variation in principals’ productivity, especially in low SES schools, and positive returns to principals’ experience. On the other hand, schools can benefit from turnover if principals` assessment and accountability policies are able to put pressure on less effective principals and to attract more effective ones (RONFELDT; LOEB; WYCKOFF, 2012)
CHAPMAN, C. et al. (ed.) The Routlege International Handbook of Educational Effectiveness and Improvement: Research, policy and practice. Routledge: Abingdon, 2015. DeANGELIS, K. J.; WHITE, B. R. Principal turnover in Illinois public schools, 2001-2008 (IERC 2011-1). Edwardsville, IL: Illinois Education Research Council, 2011. FIGLIO, D.; ROUSE, C. Do Accountability and Voucher Threats Improve Low-Performing Schools? Journal of Public Economics 90(1-2): 239-255, 2006. HERTLING, E. Retaining principals. Eric Digest, 147. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED454567). Retrieved December 18, 2001. KOSLINSKI, M. C., PORTELA, C. & ANDRADE, F. Accountability escolar: um estudo exploratório do perfil das escolas premiadas. Estudos em Avaliação Educacional, v. 25, n. 59, 2014. LADD, H. F. School-Based Educational Accountability Systems: the promise and the pitfalls. National Tax Journal, Vol. 54, n. 2, 2001. ________. ZELLI, A. School-Based Accountability in North Carolina: The Responses of School Principals. Educational Administration Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 4, p. 494-529, oct. 2002. Principals’ Turnover, School Accountability, School EffectivenessNI, Y.; SUN, M.; RORRER, A. Principal Turnover: Upheavel and Uncertainty in Charter Schools? Paper presented at the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA), 2013. PAPA, F. Why do Principals Change Schools? A Multivariate Analysis of Principal Retention. Leadership and Policy in Schools, no. 3, 267-290, 2007. PARTLOW, M. Contextual factors related to elementary principal turnover. Planning and Changing, 38(1/2), 60-76. Retrieved December 13, 2007 from Education Research Complete database, 2007. RONFELDT, M., LOEB, S. & WYCKOFF, J. How Teachers Turnover Harms Student Achievement. CALDER Working Paper no. 70, January, 2012. ROUSE, C.; HANNAWAY, J.; GOLDHABER, D.; FIGLIO, D. Feeling the Florida heat? How low-performing schools respond to voucher and accountability pressure. NBER Working Paper No 13681, 2007. SHEPPARD, R. R. Determining Factors that Influence High School Principal Turnover Over a Five Year Period. University of North Texas, Texas. 2010.
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