14 SES 10 B, Parents' Education and Effects in Their Children
Self-regulated learning (SRL) is increasingly emphasized in educational policy due to its importance in and outside the classroom (Dumont, Istance, & Benavides, 2010). Self-regulated learners refers to autonomous, reflective and efficient learners with (meta)cognitive abilities as well as motivational beliefs and attitudes to understand, monitor and direct their own learning (Wolters, 2003, p.189). Several studies show the positive impact on academic success when being actively engaged in the own learning process (e.g., Boekaerts, 1999; Zuffianò et al., 2013).
From a sociocultural perspective, the development of self-regulated learning takes place in a social environment where meaningful interactions occur with more experienced partners (Bandura, 1997). Besides teachers and students’ peers, parents play a central role in children’s live (Cheung & Pomerantz, 2012). Several studies (e.g., Cheung & Pomerantz, 2012; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Pino-Pasternak & Whitebread, 2010) have revealed that parental involvement in learning (e.g., discussing children’s schoolwork and attending parent–teacher conferences) facilitates children’s learning and ultimately their achievement. Also, some authors stress parents’ positive influence in the development of children’s SRL (Pino-Pasternak & Whitebread (2010); Zimmerman (2002); Zuffianò et al., 2013). They claim that self-regulatory beliefs and processes can be learned from instruction and modelling by children’s own parents. Pino-Pasternak and Whitebread’s theoretical model (2010) is based on a systematic review exploring the relationships between parent behaviours and elementary school children’s SRL. This model identifies three parenting dimensions (challenge, autonomy and contingency) and six parenting behaviours (metacognitive talk, active participation, understanding of control, shifts in responsibility, emotional responsiveness and contingent instructional scaffolds), which are differentially related to SRL. These parenting dimensions and behaviours are in line with effective factors and practices in fostering students’ SRL: (1) explicit instruction, (2) gradual transitions from external regulation (by a tutor) to self-regulation (by the student) through scaffolded interactions; (3) encouraging metacognitive talk, (4) and an emotionally supportive environment (Perry, 1998).
Despite the positive effects of parental involvement on students’ SRL, only limited research has been conducted so far (Pino-Pasternak & Whitebread, 2010). Especially when considering parental involvement during secondary education (Hill & Tyson, 2009) which is possibly related to the reducing time and type of home-based involvement (Seginer, 2006). The study’s main aim therefore is to explore the relationship between parental involvement in the first years of secondary education and students’ self-regulated learning in combination with their study results.
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