20 SES 04 B JS, Reading and Writing Competencies in Bilingual Perspectives and Consequences for Self-esteem and Identity
Joint Paper Session NW 20 and NW 31
What are the ecosystems of the written language?
Literacy research is now a multidisciplinary field that seeks out a social interpretation of reading and writing, holding as a reference the ecosystems of the written language itself (Skaftun, 2011; Hayes & Flower, 1980). The new writing and reading models develop in keeping with the New Literacy Studies (e.g., Rowsell & Pahl, 2005; Barton, 2007). From this perspective, writing, reading and different forms of social activity and interaction that surround them are seen as multidimensional practices, involving the cohesion of different cultural planes occupying different places in people’s identities (Poveda & Sánchez, 2010). Thus, Barton (2007) understands ecology as a metaphorical framework which enables different forms of reading and writing. This metaphor, could integrate social, psychological and historical aspects of literacy in a common framework.
Definition of literacy in a located situated context: Primary Education
The perspective of local literacy leads us to conceive this term from the conceptual plurality, whereby Barton (2007) establishes the convenience of modifying and updating this concept to the contextual demands of usage, with appearance of the term "literacies" (Barton, Hamilton & Ivanic, 1991). Literacies in our research are understood from a sociocultural perspective, focusing on the meaning of the everyday, as well as the uses of the writing and reading practices and events developed by schoolchildren in specific cultural contexts (Gee, 2004 own; Martos, 2010). Thus, it is suggested that reading and writing are not only cognitive processes or acts of (de)coding, but also social tasks, historically rooted cultural practices in a community of speakers (Cook-Gumperz, 1986; Barton, 2007).
Vernacular literacy practices
The focus of the New Literacy Studies (NLS) along with great technological advances, lead to the emergence of a number of practices foreign to institutional context, called vernacular practices (Barton, 2007; Davies & Merchant 2009; Martos, 2010). They are identified with these practices, those which are performed by the individual in a situated literacy (Barton, 2007) and occur in everyday life, arising outside the academic or official instruction (Lea & Street, 2006) and it is the participants who choose their practices in a private, idle, free and self-regulating manner (Barton, 2007; Cassany, 2012), which are usually developed beyond the realm of rules.
Ecosystems of literacy events
The ecological perspective of reading and writing practices, leads us to conceive of literacy as a socio-cultural practice (Cook-Gumperz, 1986; Barton, 2007). Taking as a reference the studies of Douglas (1970) and Martos (2010), we consider it appropriate to establish four dimensions or ecosystems to interpret the literacy events developed by students at the Primary Education stage: personal literacy culture (writing and reading events outside the academic environment), educational intructional culture (school reading and writing), cultural production and consumption (literacy events related to the publishing market), memory culture (use of libraries and information storage) (Neuman & Celano, 2001; Garcia, 2010; Martos & Campos, 2013).
The objectives of this research were as follows:
a) To describe the literacy practices and events of students in primary education from their self-reports, those of their families and teachers and determine the existence of differences of opinions (Barton, 2007).
b) To determine the differences in literacy practices and events of students in terms of personal variables and variables of context.
c) To identify reading and writing profiles of students of Primary Education (Rowsell & Pahl, 2005; Cope, 1999).
Barton, D. (2007). Literacy: An introduction to the ecology of written language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barton, D., Hamilton, M., & Ivanic, R. (1991). Situated literacies: Reading and writing in context. London: Routledge. Biencinto, Ch., Carpintero, E. & García-García, M. (2013). Propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario ActEval sobre la actividad evaluadora del profesorado universitario. RELIEVE, 19 (1), art. 2. doi: 10.7203/relieve.19.1.2611. Cassany, D. (2012). Leer y escribir fuera del aula. Aula de innovación educativa, 211, pp. 49-53. Cook-Gumperz, J.J. (Ed.) (1986). The Social Construction of Literacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (Eds.) (1999). Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social future. London/ New York: Routledge. Davies, J., & Merchant, G. (2009). Web2 for Schools. New York: Peter Lang. Douglas,M. (1970). Símbolos naturales: Exploraciones en cosmología. Madrid: Alianza Gee, J. P. (2004). Situated Language and learning: A critical of traditional schooling. New York. Routledge. Guzmán-Simón, F., & García-Jiménez, E. (2015). La alfabetización académica en la Universidad. Un estudio predictivo. RELIEVE, 21 (1), Hayes, J.R., & Flower, L.S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. En L.W Gregg y E.R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 330). Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lea, M., & Street, B. (2006). The academic literacy model: Theory and applications. Theory into practice 45 (4), 368-377. Skaftun, A. (2011). Minding Metaphors: Rethinking the Ecology of Written Language. L1- Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 11, pp. 97-108. Martos, A. E. (2010). Las prácticas de lectura / escritura y los enfoques etnográfico y geográfico. Didáctica: Lengua Y Literatura, 22, 199–229. Martos Núñez, E. & Campos Fernández-Fígares, M. (Eds.) (2013). Diccionario de nuevas formas de lectura y escritura. Madrid: Red Internacional de Universidades Lectoras/ Santillana. Neuman, S.B., & Celano, D. (2001). Access to print in low-income and middle-income communities: an ecological Study of four neighbourhoods. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(1), 8-26. Pahl, K. & Rowsell, J. (2005) Literacy and Education: Understanding the new literacy studies in the classroom. Londres: Paul Chapman. Poveda, D., & Sánchez, J. (2010). Las prácticas y estilos de Literacidad de los adolescentes fuera de la escuela: una exploración cuantitativa de las relaciones entre literacidad, escolarización y origen familiar. Sociolinguistic Studies, 4, 85–114.
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