11 SES 11 A, How Can We Improve Teaching Processes?
Parental und primary school teachers` support is an important prerequisite for children’s learning processes. Feedback represents information transmitted by parents or teachers with the objective of supporting children`s learning processes and to clarify discrepancies between actual performances and learning goals (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Hattie (2003) points out that feedback often relates to “aspects of one’s performance or understanding“ and can be understood as “a `consequence´ of performance“ (p. 2). Empirical evidence for the importance of significant others` feedback (e.g., parents, teachers) on the development of children`s implicit theories of intelligence, their self-concepts and their motivation was provided in the last years (e.g., Burnett, 2003; Cimpian, Arce, Markman, & Dweck, 2007; Mueller & Dweck, 1998). With regard to our research interest, two types of attributional feedback are distinguished (Burnett, 2003): feedback on effort and feedback on ability. Feedback on effort means praise or criticism on primary school students` performances at home or at school, whereas feedback on ability is understood as praise or criticism on their personality traits or individual characteristics (Burnett & Mandel, 2010; Kamins & Dweck, 1999, p. 835). Feedback on effort in relation to feedback on ability is considered as an important determinant for children`s learning development (Dweck, 2007). Currently, there are only a few studies concerning the role of parental and teachers’ effort feedback for students’ implicit theories, their self-concepts as well as their intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation. Gunderson, Gripshover, Romero, Dweck, Goldin-Meadow and Levine (2013) investigated the role of parental effort feedback for children`s implicit theories of intelligence. The results of the study reveal a significant correlation between the parental effort feedback and children`s incremental theories of intelligence. In addition, significant others` feedback is considered as an important determinant for the development of individuals` self-concept. For now, no specific studies have been carried out concerning the importance of effort feedback and children`s academic self-concepts. In contrast, the role of parental encouragements and support for children`s self-concepts could be pointed out (Rogers, Theule, Ryan, & Keating, 2009). Effort Feedback is also considered to be highly important for the development of children`s intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The results of experiments by Mueller and Dweck (1998) reveal that students who had received praise on effort showed a significantly stronger learning goal orientation than students who had obtained praise on their abilities. In comparison, students who had received praise for their abilities showed a significantly stronger performance goal orientation than students who had been praised for their efforts.
Currently, there is a lack of research on the importance of parental and teachers` effort feedback for the development of children`s implicit theories, their academic self-concepts as well as their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Furthermore, the question whether parental or teachers` effort feedback is more important for the development of children`s implicit theories, their academic self-concepts as well as their learning and achievement motivation is not answered yet. In the available studies parental and teachers` feedback was only generally operationalized in most cases. Therefore, our study investigates whether primary school students` implicit theories, their reading self-concepts and their reading motivation can be predicted by their perceptions of their parental and teachers` effort feedback on reading outcomes. Based on the work of Eccles (2005), we assume that the effects of children`s perceptions of their parental and teachers` feedback on their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are mediated by their implicit theories and their reading self-concepts. We expect that children`s perceptions of effort feedback can increase or decrease their implicit theories and their reading self-concepts. These processes lead to effects on primary school students` intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Burnett, P. C. (2002). Teacher feedback. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/26833/2/26833.pdf Burnett, P. C. (2003). The impact of teacher feedback on student self-talk and self-concept in reading and mathematics. The Journal of Classroom Interaction, 38(1), 11-16. Burnett, P. & Mandel, V. (2010). Praise and feedback in the primary classroom: Teachers` and students` perspectives. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 10, 145-154. Cimpian, A., Arce, H. C., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Subtle linguistic cues affect children’s motivation. Psychological Science, 18(4), 314-316. Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories. Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Lillington, NC: Edwards Brothers. Dweck, C. S. (2007). Boosting achievement with messages that motivate. Education Canada, 47(2), 6-10. Eccles, J. S. (2005). Subjective task value and the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 105-121). New York: The Guildford Press. Gunderson, E. A., Gripshover, S. J., Romero, C., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (2013). Parent praise to 1- to 3-year-olds predicts children’s motivational frameworks 5 years later. Child Development, 84(5), 1526-1541. Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. Hattie, J. (2003). Why is it so difficult to enhance self-concept in the classroom: The power of feedback in the self-concept-achievement relationship. Paper presented at the International SELF conference, Sydney, Australia. Kamins, M. L. & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 835-847. Mueller, C. M. & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 33-52. Rogers, M. A., Theule, J., Ryan, B. A., & Keating, L. (2009). Parental involvement and children`s school achievement. Evidence for mediating processes. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 24(1), 34-57. Schöne, C., Dickhäuser, O., Spinath, B., & Stiensmeier-Pelster, J. (2002). Skalen zur Erfassung des schulischen Selbstkonzepts – SESSKO [Scales for the assessment of the academic self-concept]. Göttingen: Hogrefe. Stutz, F., Schaffner, E., & Schiefele, U. (2014). Factor Structure and Construct Validity of a Reading Motivation Questionnaire for Elementary School Students (Development of an Instrument Measuring Reading Motivation in Beginning Readers). Unpublished Manuscript. Potsdam: University of Potsdam.
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