09 SES 07 B, Creativity Development, Cognitive Styles and Financial Literacy
Educational performance assessment, done by means of large scale standardized performance tests (PISA type of evaluation), and everyday pedagogical evaluations, made by teachers in classrooms, coexist in the educational system with similar contents, but with different goals and dynamics. The similarities and differences between these two sources of information about students’ learning achievements have not been completely understood.
We think that the explanation for the discrepancies in levels of educational performance between these two assessment modalities may have to do with a well-developed psychological construct: the concept of ‘cognitive style’ (Riding, 2000). Some authors have found that the use of this theoretical lens has important advantages for the study of educational performance (Tinajero, Lemos, Araujo, Ferraces, &Páramo, 2012; Tinajero & Páramo, 1997, 1998).
Understood as ‘a distinct and consistent way for an individual to encode, store and perform’ (Atkinson, 2004, p. 663), cognitive style has clear connections with educational performance, via school learning. This study is focused on one cognitive style dimension that has been the most frequently used in educational research: the field dependence-independence (FDI) dimension, developed by Herman Witkin and his colleagues. Recent formulations of FDI define it as a construct that entails individual differences in the preference for internal or external referents; preference that manifests itself in a wide range of behavioural domains including perception, cognition, social behaviour and affection (Witkin & Goodenough, 1981).
Witkin’s formulations of the FDI dimension emphasised its neutral value; which means that both, field-independent (FI) and field-dependent (FD) individuals, are equally well adapted to the demands of the environment; even though the modes of adaptation are clearly different. In general, most of the studies have found better educational achievement indicators for FI students in almost all areas, including Language (Paramo & Tinajero, 1990), Mathematics (Van Blerkom, 1988), Natural Sciences (Arthur & Day, 1991), Social Sciences (Bowlin, 1988), Foreign Language (Chapelle & Roberts, 1986), Music (Schmidt & Lewis, 1987), Arts (Fergusson, 1992) and Computer Programming (Coventry, 1989). In some cases, the associations stop being significant when intelligence is controlled (Roberge & Flexer, 1981); even though in other studies differences remain, always in favour of FI students, after intelligence is controlled (Tinajero & Páramo, 1997)
Atkinson, S. (2004). A comparison of pupil learning and achievement in computer aided learning and traditionally taught situations with special reference to cognitive style and gender issues. Educational Psychology, 24, 659–679. Páramo, M. F., & Tinajero, C. (1992). Influencia de la estructura normative familiar sobre el estilo cognitivo dependencia-independencia de campo: un estudio prospective [A prospective study on the influence of family environment structure on field dependenceindependence cognitive style]. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 15, 89–98. Riding, R. (2000). Cognitive style: A review. In R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), International perspectives in individual differences. Volume 1: Cognitive styles (pp. 315–344). Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Roberge, J. J., & Flexer, B. K. (1981). Re-examination of the covariation of field independence, intelligence and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 235–236. Tinajero, C., & Páramo, M. F. (1997). Field dependence-independence and academic achievement: A re-examination of their relationship. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 199–212. Tinajero, C., & Páramo, M. F. (1998). Field dependence-independence and strategic learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 29, 251–262. Tinajero, C., Lemos, S., Araujo, M., Ferraces, M., & Páramo, M. (2012). Estilo cognitivo e estrategias de aprendizagem em estudantes universitarios brasileiros: repercussoes no rendimento academico [Cognitive style and learning strategies as factors which affect academic achievement of brazilian university students]. Psicologia: Reflexao & Critica, 25, 105–113. Witkin, H., & Goodenough, D. (1981). Estilos Cognitivos. Naturaleza y orígenes [Cognitive styles. Essence and origins]. Madrid: Ediciones Pirámide.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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Network 4. Inclusive Education
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