10 SES 09 A, Professional Identity & Teacher Identity: Language education
Professional experience has been described as a cornerstone of teacher preparation that has a “profound impact on student teachers” (Hammerness, Darling-Hammond, & Shulman, 2002, p. 409). The literature has extensively documented the benefits pre-service teachers gained from field experiences (Koc, 2011; Zeichner, 2010) and repeatedly confirmed its critical role in preparing highly qualified teachers. Recent reports, at both international and at national levels, stress the need to provide quality mentoring support for pre-service teachers during the practicum
([OECD], 2011; TEMAG, 2014). In the current climate of reform, change and improvement, research into the perspectives of teacher mentors is an important priority that can contribute to improvements in the quality of teaching. It is acknowledged there is a continuing need for the practicum component of initial teacher education to be carefully examined (Ewing, Lowrie, & Higgs, 2010; Sim, 2006; White, Bloomfield, & Le Cornu, 2010).
Mentoring is a process, to help pre-service teachers both in their teaching practices and personal and professional development, involving a nurturing relationship by a more experienced teacher. A number of researchers (Hascher, Cocard, & Moser, 2004) believe the quality of the pre-service teachers’ learning largely depends the effectiveness of mentors in creating a positive learning environment. However, mentoring practice in reality varies widely in practice. Banville’s review (2002) of 25 years of studies on the role of cooperative (mentor) teachers confirmed this and suggested,that “there are neither clear descriptions of their role nor any standards for their functioning or preparation” (p.346). There is a need for greater understanding of mentoring in terms of progression, the processes and actual practices. Most studies have investigated the mentoring practice from the individual participants’ perspective, rather than considering the development of the mentoring relationship. This study fills this gap by exploring mentoring relationship as perceived by the mentor and more specifically addresses the following research question:
What is the progression in the mentoring relationship during the teaching practicum?
The conceptual framework adopted for this study was used to identify and understand the progression of the mentoring relationship during the practicum. This was based on Kram’s (1983) theory of mentoring, a study of corporate developmental relationships over a 6 months to an indefinite time period. The theory consists of a four phase conceptual model outlining the progression of mentoring relationships. These are: (1) initiation (the start of the relationship), (2) cultivation (mentoring functions expand), (3) separation (established relationship is substantially altered by context and/or psychological changes), (4) redefinition (relationship evolves and/or ends) (Kram, 1983, p.614).
Movement from one phase to the next is marked by ‘Turning Points’ that are characterised by effective experiences, mentoring functions, and interactions, and shaped by needs and circumstances of individuals’ (p.621). A number of researchers have supported the validation of these phrases as effective mentoring (Mullens & Schunk, 2011; Chao, 1997; Bouquillon, Sosik, and Lee, 2005; Abrosetti, Knight & Kekkers, 2014). However, more operational details and evidence are needed to guide the mentoring in different contexts. Mullens & Schunk, (2012) theoretical model of mentoring phrases from the protégé’s perspective was useful in considering the progression of the mentoring relationship in teaching. This qualitative study makes a contribution by validating the phases and features of effective mentoring practice, with focus on the when and how of mentoring processes from the perspective of the teacher mentor.
Ambrosetti, A., Knight, B., Dekkers, J. (2014). Maximizing the potential of mentoring: A framework for preservice teacher education. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 22(3), 224-239. Banville, D. (2002). Literature review of best practices of cooperating teachers in the USA. Paper presented at the The China-U.S. Conference on Physical Education, Beijing, China, July 16-19. Boeije, H. (2002). A purposeful approach to the constant comparative method in the analysis of qualitative interviews. Quality & Quantity, 36(4), 391-409. Bouquillon, E. A., Sosik, J. J., & Lee, D. (2005). ‘It’s only a phase’: examining trust, identification and mentoring functions received across the mentoring phases. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 13(2), 239-258. doi:10.1080/13611260500105808 Ewing, R. Lowrie, T., Higgs, J. (2010). Teaching and communicating: Rethinking. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Hammerness, K., Darling-Hammond, L., & Shulman, L. (2002). Toward expert thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers. Teaching Education, 13(2), 219-243. Hascher , T., Cocard, Y., & Moser, P. (2004). Forget about theory—practice is all? student teachers' learning in practicum. Teachers and Teaching, 10(6), 623-637. doi:10.1080/1354060042000304800 Koç, E. M. (2011). Development of mentor teacher role inventory. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(2), 193-208. Kram, K. E. (1983). Phases of the mentor relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 608-625. Miles, M. B.,Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook SAGE Publications, Incorporated Mullen, C. A., & Schunk, D. H. (2012). Operationalizational phrases of mentoring relationships. In S. J. Fletcher & A. M. Carol (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring and Coaching in Education (Vol. 6, pp. 89-105). London: SAGE Publications Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2011). Building a high quality teaching profession. Paris, France: Author. Sim, C. (2006). Preparing for professional experiences - incorporating pre-service teachers communities of practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(1), 77-83. Teacher Education Ministerial Advisory Group (TEMAG). (June, 2014). What characteristics should be fostered and developed in graduate teachers through their initial teacher education? Australian Government, Department of Education and Training, Australia. White, Bloomfield & Le Cornu. (2010). Professional experience in new times: Issus and responses to a changing education landscape. Asian-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 38(3), 181-193. Zeichner, K. (2010). Rethinking the connections between campus courses and field experiences in college-and university-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 89-99.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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