10 SES 06 D, Engaging with Professional Standards and Educational Goals
Purpose of the Study
Research has shown that beginning teachers have difficulties to accomplish teaching tasks (e.g., preparing material and physical setting, designing and applying instructional plans) compared to experienced teachers (Borko, et. al., 1992; Britt, 1997; Hebert & Worthy, 2001; Reynolds, 1992; Vennman, 1984; Wildman, et. al., 1989). In order to become successful teachers that could cope with these difficulties, it is important for beginning teachers to be “self-regulated individuals” who can control their cognition, motivation, and behaviors.
Teacher self-regulation can be defined as teachers’ direction and maintenance of their metacognition, motivation, and strategies to achieve effective instruction (Çapa-Aydın, Sungur & Uzuntiryaki, 2009). Research in this area mainly focused on teachers’ or pre-service teachers’ regulation before or after instruction (i.e., planning or reflecting the instruction) (e.g., Butler, et. al, 2004; Maat & Zakaria, 2010; Paris & Winogard, 2001). Little is known about how and to what extend beginning teachers regulate themselves during the instruction. Therefore, the current study addresses beginning mathematics teachers’ decisions and actions related to monitoring and controlling (i.e., regulating) of their instructional practices. For this purpose, we examined six beginning teacher’s instructional practices and the underlying regulatory processes (monitoring and controlling) behind their instructional decisions and practices. The following questions are addressed:
1) What did beginning teachers monitor (e.g., student learning, instructional behaviors) while teaching?
2) Whether and how did beginning teachers control their instructional practices?
This study focuses on teachers’ instructional decisions and actions from the perspective of self-regulation. Zimmerman’s self-regulation model (Zimmerman, 2000, 2002) is mainly used to explain regulation of learning. This model presents self-regulation in terms of three cyclical phases: forethought, performance control, and self-reflection. Forethought is the phase, where individuals set goals and make plans to achieve these goals. Performance control phase involves making online decisions and acting in order to achieve the goals. Finally, self-reflection phase involves making judgments and reacting on the performances. The current study aims to apply this model to investigate teachers’ regulation as they engage in teaching practices. Therefore, the focus is given to the performance control phase of self-regulation. Two main processes related to this phase are self-control and self-monitoring (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 2000). Self-control involves selecting, adapting, or inventing strategies to accomplish the tasks. Self-monitoring, on the other hand, refers to deliberate attention to one’s own performance. In this study, “instructional practices” refers to the tasks related to teaching (e.g., providing explanations and examples, asking questions, evaluating student responses). Hence, self-control refers to teachers’ online decisions and strategic behaviors in order to perform instructional practices. On the other hand, self-monitoring refers to teachers’ deliberate attention to the aspects of the instructional practices (e.g., students’ performances, teacher’s own performance).
Borko, H., Eisenhart, M., Brown, C. A., Underhill, R. G., Jones, D., & Agard, P. C. (1992). Learning to teach hard mathematics: Do novice teachers and their instructors give up too easily? Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 23(3), 194-222. Britt, P. M. (1997). Perceptions of beginning teachers: Novice teachers reflect upon their beginning experiences, Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Memphis, TN. Butler, D.L., Lauscher H.N., Jarvis-Selinger S., & Beckingham B. (2004). Collaboration and self-regulation in teachers’ professional development, Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 435–455. Çapa-Aydın, Y., Sungur, S., & Uzuntiryaki, E. (2009). Teacher self-regulation: Examining a multidimensional construct, Educational Psychology, 29(3), 345-356. Hebert, E., & Worthy, T., (2001). Does the first year of teaching have to be a bad one? A case study of success, Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(8), 897-911. Maat, S. M. B., & Zakaria, E. (2010). An exploration of mathematics teachers’ reflection on their teaching practices, Asian Social Science, 6(5), 147-152. Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2001). The role of self-regulated learning in contextual teaching: principles and practices for teacher preparation. [Web]: http://www.ciera.org/library/archive/2001-04/0104parwin.htm#_ftn1. Pintrich, P. R., (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning, Handbook of Self-Regulation, ed: Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., & Zeidner, M., New York: Academic Press, pp: 451-501. Reynolds, A. (1992) What is competent beginning teaching? A review of the literature, Review of Educational Research, 62(1), 1-35. Stake, (2000). R. E. (2000). Case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 435-454). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Veenman, S. (1984). Perceived problems of beginning teachers, Review of Educational Research, 54(2), 143-178. Wildman, T. M., Niles, J. A., Magliaro, S. G., & McLaughlin, R. A. (1989). Teaching and learning to teach: The two roles of beginning teachers, The Elementary School Journal, 89(4), 471-493. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective, Handbook of Self-Regulation, Ed: Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., & Zeidner, M., New York: Academic Press, Pp: 13-39. Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview, Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK, Project No. 113K316) and Hacettepe University.
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