09 SES 10 B, Investigating Student Attitudes on Assessment and Evaluation Practices
Norms of cheating while heading towards high social status has become more sophisticated and it has become a habitual and norm amongst students (Craig&Dalton,2014). In Israel every year the subject of cheating on exams arises, especially regarding the matriculation exams amongst students in the Arabic sector (Khaldy, 2014).
The purpose and importance of this paper is to examine the differences among high school students' attitudes towards cheating on matriculation exams amongst Muslims, Bedouins, Christians and Druzes and to examine the factors by various background variables that explain the attitudes towards this phenomenon of cheating and eventually to recommend methods of treatment in these areas.
The central research questions are:
1. Are there differences between students from various Arab ethnic groups in Israel in their attitudes towards the phenomenon of cheating in matriculation exams?
2. Do the background variables, such as gender, religious level, nature of place of residence, mother's source of livelihood, explain the attitudes of students from various Arab ethnic groups in Israel towards the phenomenon of cheating in matriculation exams?
Researchers describe the phenomenon of cheating as "a new epidemic", a serious problem worldwide or consider it deceit, and as a form of cheating which is morally and ethically unacceptable (Thomas et al.,2015). Another studies found that students do not consider it as an ethical problem (Craig&Dalton,2014).
Previous Research studies were done in the world show that cheating in school surpasses borders in the world. McCabe, (2005) found that "cheating" of various kinds is widespread and habitual (Craig&Dalton,2014). The studies show that sometimes reaches a scope of 70-80% amongst high school students in the world (Nazir & Aslam, 2010; Lau &Haug, 2011; Jones, Blankenship, Hollier, 2013).
The studies show that there are differences amongst students from various ethnic groups in the outlooks and attitudes towards the cheating phenomenon on exams. For an example McCabe et.al. (2008) found that Lebanese students cheat more than the Americans students.
Regarding to the cheating phenomenon in examinations, researches show that boys cheat more than girls (Galloway,2012).
Many causes influence cheating on exams, for an example, those such as fear of failing in their exams, anxiety over failing in examination, and pressure for time (Galloway,2012; Peled&Khaldy,2013; El -Sabaoi, 2007).
One of the factors that can affect cheating among minorities in Israel is unequal distribution of resources by the state.
According to Israeli researches, schools in the Christian and Druze sectors receive more funding from the Ministry of Education than schools of Bedouins and Muslims (Meari, 2014).
We can assume that, the ethnic groups which suffer more from the lack of state funding (Bedouins and Muslims) perceive the problem of cheating in exams more severely than the groups that receive more resource investment (such as Druzes and Christians).
Cheating on examinations can lead to a serious implications and cause a long-term damage to the individual and to the society, especially to the educational system. Marks that do not reflect true knowledge accompany a lack of motivation to study and unethical behavior in general, etc. (Craig&Dalton, 2014).
Professional literature recommends methods of treatment in these areas: Changing the teaching methods and the evaluation in giving marks, and developing preventative programs including teaching social and religious values and honor codes, workshops to increase the damages awareness, and reducing emotional pressure over tests, increasing the mechanisms of enforcement and supervision on the integrity of tests such as prohibiting cellular phones by exams and increasing the punishments (Khaldy, 2014; McCabe, Trevino, & Butterfield,2002; Williams,et.al.2014).
References : Jones, I.S., Blankenship, D., Hollier, G. (2013). Am i cheating? An analysis of online student perception of their behaviors and attitudes. Psychology Research, 5, 261-269. Craig, R., & Dalton, D. (2014). Developing a platform for a culture of honest inquiry and the academic construction of knowledge in first-year students. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 10 (1) ,56-69. Khaldy, S. (2011). The phenomenon of cheating on matriculation examinations amidst Arabic and Jewish students during high school in Israel. Jameh ,15, 125-160. Khaldy,S.(2014). Cheating on matriculation examinations in the Arabic sector: Distribution methods and attitudes of students, teachers and parents. Research report submitted to the Office of the Main Scientist in the Department of Education, Jerusalem. Galloway, M. K. (2012). Cheating in Advantaged High Schools: Prevalence, Justifications, and Possibilities for Change. Ethics & Behavior, 22(5), 378–399. Lau,L.,& Haug. (2011). The impact of sex, college, major, and student classification on student's perception of ethics. Mustang Journal of Business & Ethics, 2,92-105. Nazir,M.S. &Aslam ,M.S. (2010). Academic dishonesty perceptions of Pakistani students. International Journal of Educational Management, 24 (7), 655-668. Meari,M.(2014).Curricula of Arab Education in Israel. Nazareth, Arab Pedagogical Council. McCabe, D. L., Trevino, L. K., & Butterfield, K. D. (2002). Honor codes and other contextual influences on academic integrity. Research in Higher Education, 43, 357–378. McCabe, D. L. (2005). Cheating among college and university students: A North American perspective. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 1(1). Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.ojs.unisa.edu.au/index.php/IJEI/ article/view/14/9. McCabe, D. L., Feghali, T., & Abdallah, H. (2008). Academic dishonesty in the Middle East: Individual and contextual factors. Research in Higher Education, 49, 451–467. Okorodudu,G..N.(2012).Relationship between parental motivation, self–efficacy and examination dishonesty among secondary school students in delta state. International Journal of Psychological Studies; 4, (4), 80-89. El -Sabaoi, D. (2007). The phenomenon of cheating on school tests amongst high school students. Education and teaching, Iraq, 14 ,271-301, (Arabic). Peled,Y.& Khaldy,S .(2013). Discrimination, Survival and Tradition as Argumentation for Academic Dishonesty. Educational Practice and Theory, 5 (1), 41-61. Thomas, J. Raynor.M., & McKinnon.M.(2014). Academic integrity and oral examination: An Arabian Gulf perspective. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 51(5), 533-543. Williams,S & Tanner,T & Beard,J & Chacko,J . (2014). Academic Misconduct among Business Students: A Comparison of the US and UAE. J Acad Ethics ,12, 65–73.
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