10 SES 03 C, Developing Professional Identities: Key concerns and values
School, teaching and learning are aspects in which both teachers and learners are equally interested since schooling and teaching play a considerable part in the lives of both adolescents and teachers. At school, there are many possibilities for interaction between teachers and learners, which underlines the important role of teachers in the lives of their students (Tatar, 1998a). Within this context, the "crossover theory" states that emotions are generated indirectly and directly by the emotions of other persons (Härtel & Page, 2009), which suggests that the emotions of teachers and students are related to one another (Becker, Goetz , Morger & Ranellucci, 2014).
Research findings attest emotions to explain a considerable part of the development of learning strategies (Götz, Zirngibl, Pekrun & Hall, 2003), academic achievement (Valiente, Swanson & Eisenberg, 2012) and decisions about the future career of students (Wigfield, Battle, Keller & Eccles, 2001). In addition to a more favorable class climate, higher self-efficacy expectations of teachers also improve the performance of students at school (Schunk et al., 2008).
The characteristics of the students as well as the perception of their teachers are also important for the emotionality of the students (Saft & Pianta, 2001; Stuhlman & Pianta, 2002). Here, heterogeneity plays a significant role, which since the PISA study has stimulated school pedagogical discussion on heterogeneity. Education researchers need to find an appropriate approach to heterogeneity in school. Often, when heterogeneity occurs in schools, one understands the multiplicity of the individual students or the very different composition of student groups (social, cultural or performance-related differences, categories such as age, sex, achievement, ethnicity or socio-economic status). Multiculturalism is one of the key words in education and often a particular challenge for teachers. In every class, different cultures come together, which leads to different ideas about how to deal with one another.
Emotions usually emanate unconsciously, while feelings and associated actions are seen as consequences of emotions (Rothermund & Eder, 2011; Schaat, Huber, Doblhammer & Dietrich, 2014). In this context, the distinction between implicit and explicit attitudes can also be brought into the discussion, with implicit attitudes being considered unconscious or preconscious aspects leading to emotions, and explicit attitudes being accessed by consciousness and thus also being controllable and changeable. Research on implicit and explicit attitudes also deals with the question of the attitudes of teachers towards their learners, and here, particularly towards those learners with an immigration background.
Often, important decisions by teachers about their students' educational pathways are based on (implicit) attributions to (external) characteristics of their students. According to the Pygmalion Effect, teachers' expectations regarding the achievement of their students influence not only their assessments of their students, but also the students' performance. The enormous importance of these judgments for the development of the students is emphasized again and again. Therefore, the following questions are of interest in this paper (1) How do implicit prejudices of teachers regarding students with migration background refer to their explicit judgments and (2) How do the educational aspirations of students who had teachers with strong implicit prejudices against them at the beginning of Secondary I develop in Secondary II?
The focus of the analyses lies on the unconscious, not directly accessible and non-manipulatable attitudes of teachers who are aware of their consciously accessible attitudes. On the other hand, the influence of these negative emotions of teachers towards students with a migration background on their development in Secondary II is of interest.
Becker, E. S., Goetz, T., Morger, V., & Ranellucci, J. (2014). The importance of teachers' emotions and instructional behavior for their students' emotions–An experience sampling analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 43, 15-26. Stroot, T., Boller, S. & Rosowski, E. (Hrsg., 2007). Heterogenität in Schule und Unterricht. Handlungsansätze zum pädagogischen Umgang mit Vielfalt. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz Verlag. Forghani-Arani, N., Geppert, C. & Katschnig, T. (2014). Wenn der Pygmalioneffekt nicht greift ... Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung 5/1, 21-36 (DOI) 10.1007/s35834-014-0104-x Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E. & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480. Götz, T., Zirngibl, A., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. (2003). Emotions, learning and achievement from an educational-psychological perspective. In P. Mayring, & C. v. Rhoeneck (Hrsg.), Learning emotions. The influence of affective factors on classroom learning (S. 9-28). Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Härtel, C. E., & Page, K. M. (2009). Discrete emotional crossover in the workplace: the role of affect intensity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(3), 237-253. Projektteam NOESIS (2016). Was Schulen stark macht: Zur Evaluation der Niederösterreichischen Mittelschule. Graz: Leykam. Raufelder, D. & Ittel, A. (2011). Lehrer und Schüler als Bildungspartner: Theoretische Ansätze zwischen Tradition und Moderne. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, c2008 ; La Vergne, MyiLibrary. Saft, E. W., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Teachers' perceptions of their relationships with students: Effects of child age, gender, and ethnicity of teachers and children. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(2), 125. Schaat, S., Huber, M., Doblhammer, K., & Dietrich, D. (2014). An Interdisciplinary Approach for a Holistic and Embodied Emotion Model in Humanoid Agents. AIC, 16-26. Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R. & Meece, J. (2008). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Stuhlman, M. W., & Pianta, R. C. (2002). Teacher's narratives about their relationships with children: associations with behavior in classrooms. School Psychology Review, 31(2), 148. Tatar, M. (1998). Teachers as significant others: Gender differences in secondary school pupil’s perceptions. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 217-227. Van den Bergh, L., Denessen, E., Hornstra, L., Voeten, M., & Holland, R. W. (2010). The implicit prejudiced attitudes of teachers relations to teacher expectations and the ethnic achievement gap. American Educational Research Journal, 47(2), 497-527.
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