32 SES 09 A, Organizing Education in and for Regional Development
The system of education delivery has undergone a drastic change in the past two decades. One of the most crucial shifts appears in the form of unprecedented growth in the extent and size of private tuition industry (Bray 1999, Bray & Lykins 2012). The literature on tutoring services identifies various ways in which the industry functions in different education systems. These studies show differential nature of demand and supply of tuition classes in education market (Bray, Zhan, Lykins, Kwo 2014, Dawson 2010). Research in this field also indicates various ways in which these organizations relate to the formal education system (Kim & Park 2010, Bray & Kwok 2003, Nath 2008, Dawson 2010, Choi & Park 2016, Bray & Kwo 2013). Relatively less work, however, examines the organization of these institutions of education delivery. That is, how tuition industry as a parallel institution is constituted.
In the Indian context, a recent scholarship establishes the pervasiveness of tuition industry in the everyday experience of schooling (Sen 2009). However, none of these works investigate how exactly these institutions work and what implications do they have on the formal education system. These issues warrant further studying and critical examination. This paper attempts to understand the organization of private tutoring—its institutional arrangements and everyday education practices—along with highlighting the processes through which these new forms of academic organizations alter the landscape of education delivery services in contemporary India.
Theoretically, the paper is located in the broader scholarship of new institutional analysis of education organizations as it attempts to unravel the mysterious—imminent yet obscure—presence of tuition industry in urban India. Jane Aurini’s work has been remarkable in conceptualizing the privatized education businesses in existing scholarship. In her study about Edu-businesses and their functioning in Canada, Aurini (2006) problematizes the fundamental logics of education organization enshrined in the new-institutionalist perspective. Refuting the logic of isomorphism in the current literature, Aurini argues that privatized education businesses gain legitimacy through “engaging in strategic isomorphism and by responding to new pressures in the technical environment” (83, emphasis added). Applying the new institutional perspective of education system and its organization, I use “myth-making” and “logic of confidence” as two analytical categories to understand the functioning of private tuition industry in India.
This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section focuses on the processes of “myth-making.” This section is further divided into two subsections: 1) the description of the “institutional script” of “academic constellation”— curriculum, scheduling of services, and specialization and diversification of services according to Board of affiliation, Educational level, Academic subject (BEA); 2) an analysis of “market-driven elements” of private tuition businesses—these are a combination of pedagogical (individual oriented learning environment), staffing related (or teachers’ recruitment process and criteria), and cost (fee system) associated factors. These two features of private tutoring—schooling scripts and market generated demands—create a “myth” of forming a more efficacious form of academic learning and training for excelling in the appraisal system through incorporating the hybrid character in its institutional arrangement. The second section of the paper is about the “logic of confidence” in which I present the case of private tuitions in India and how they build their project of legitimacy through strategic isomorphism.
Aurini, J. (2006). Crafting legitimation projects: An institutional analysis of private education businesses. Sociological Forum, 21(1), 83-111. Bray, M. (1999). The Shadow Education System: Private Tutoring and its Implications for Planner. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 61, Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). Bray, M., & Kwo, O. (2013). Behind the façade of fee-free education: Shadow education and its implications for social justice. Oxford Review of Education, 39(4), 480-497. Bray, M., & Kwok, P. (2003). Demand for private supplementary tutoring: Conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in hong kong. Economics of Education Review, 22(6), 611-620. Bray & Lykins (2012). Shadow education: private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia. Asia Development Bank publications. Bray, M., Zhan, S., Lykins, C., Wang, D., & Kwo, O. (2014). Differentiated demand for private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and implications in hong kong secondary education. Economics of Education Review, 38, 24-37. Choi, Y., & Park, H. (2016). Shadow education and educational inequality in south korea: Examining effect heterogeneity of shadow education on middle school seniors’ achievement test scores. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 44, 22-32. Dawson, W. (2010). Private tutoring and mass schooling in east asia: Reflections of inequality in japan, south korea, and cambodia. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 14-24. Kim, J., & Park, D. (2010). The determinants of demand for private tutoring in south korea. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(3), 411-421. Nath, S. R. (2008). Private supplementary tutoring among primary students in bangladesh. Educational Studies, 34(1), 55-72. Sen, A. (2009). “Introduction: Primary Schooling in West Bengal,” in Rana, Kumar (Coordinator), The Pratichi Education Report II: Primary Education in West Bengal – Changes and Challenges. New Delhi: Pratichi (India) Trust.
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