23 SES 02 A, Politics and Policy Making in Education (Part 2)
Paper Session continued from 23 SES 01 A, to be continued in 23 SES 03 A
How is the question of grade appeals in public education politically revived and reinvented? This paper addresses this question by examining two episodes of political initiatives to implement grade appeal systems in Swedish compulsory and upper secondary education. In Sweden, the possibility to appeal state action has traditionally been weak (Trägårdh and Svedberg, 2013). In the area of education, the absence of appeal systems for educational measures such as promotion or non-promotion, examinations, and grades reflects a legal tradition distinct from those parts of Europe where administrative courts are much more extensive (Waldow, 2014). For example, both the German and English education systems provide systems for appeals in various ways (Waldow 2014). This paper shows the ways in which a controversial issue in education politics – the promotion of grade appeal in Swedish compulsory and upper secondary education – is being revived after a rather “latent” period of 30 years by discursively fitting it into a new political environment. It shows how government-appointed commissions of inquiry adapt to the broader political environment and tailor meanings of education to further the interests of contemporary education politics. Specifically, it shows how a reform movement that starts off with traditional democratic aims seeks accommodation within a modern state institution by aligning itself with prevailing neoliberal political values and reorienting its place in the educational policy terrain. The paper tells the story of how litigation practices are being promoted in the guise of two educational reform initiatives and entails how actors are establishing connections – not only between the private and public but also between different occurrences located at different points in time and space. Drawing on the research on social movements, we connect political actors’ discursive strategies and struggles to broader shifts in European educational politics. Applying a series of concepts from the social movement literature on “frame analysis,” the paper illuminates how political actors in Sweden strategically alter meanings in ways that resonate in their current political environments. By employing this framework, we show how the issue of grade appeal in Sweden, despite formidable obstacles, has remained viable by drawing on newly legitimate themes in transnational education politics.
Benford, R.D. and Snow, D.A. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: an overview and assessment, Annual Review of Sociology 26(1): 614 della Porta, D. (2006). The Study of Social Movements: Recurring Questions, (Partially) Changing Answers. In D. della Porta and M. Diani (eds.). Social movements: an introduction (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., pp. 1-32. Gamson, W. (2004). Bystanders, Public Opinion, and the Media. In David A. Snow, Sarah A. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi (eds), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 242-261. Johnston, H. (1995). A methodology for frame analysis: from discourse to cognitive schemata. In Johnston Hank and Klandermans Bert (eds.) Social movements and culture, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota press, pp. 217-246. Johnston, H. (2002). Verification and Proof in Frame and Discourse Analysis. In B. Klandermans and S. Staggenborg (eds.), Methods of Social Movements Research. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 62–91. Polletta, F., and Ho, K.M. (2006). Frames and their consequences. In R.E, Goodin, and C. Tilly. (2006), The Oxford handbook of contextual political analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 187-209. Snow, D.A. and Benford, R.D. (1988). Ideology, frame resonance and participant mobilization. In B. Klandermans, H., Kriesi and S. Tarrow (eds), International Social Movement Research, Vol. 1, Greenwich, CT: JAI, pp. 197-217. Snow, D.A. (2004). Framing Processes, Ideology, and Discursive Fields. In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 380–412. Trägårdh, L. and Svedberg, L. (2013). The Iron Law of Rights: Citizenship and Individual Empowerment in Modern Sweden. In A. Evers, and A-M. Guillemard (eds), Social Policy and Citizenship. The Changing Landscape. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online. DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754045.001.0001 Waldow, F. (2014). Conceptions of Justice in the Examination Systems of England, Germany, and Sweden: A Look at Safeguards of Fair Procedure and Possibilities of Appeal. Comparative Education Review. 58(2): 322-343. Westby, D.L. (2002). Strategic imperative, ideology, and frame. Mobilization, 7: 287-304.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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