28 SES 04.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session
Researches concerning teachers’ (and school) effectiveness have a history of almost fifty years. Researchers have tried to find answers to questions like when the teacher is effective, what makes this job effective. Most of the researchers agree that teachers’ effectiveness- which means first and foremost the teacher’s influence on students’ academic success- has no clear, easy to grasp indices. While searching for explanations, researches focus on the teacher as an individual in the first place, examining his or her qualifications, experience, methods used, etc (Hanushek et all 1992, 1999; Darling-Hammond 1999, 2000; Monk 1994; Wenglinsky 2000; Sleeter 2008). The other group of researches, which studies school effectiveness, concentrates on the school as a whole, examining everything from infrastructural conditions to learning environments, paying particular attention to the headmaster (Coleman 1966). However, while searching for explanations, only a few researches integrate the following factors into the analysis: the teaching staff as a corporate body, the joint work or its consequent result, the development of pupils and classes as a collective outcome (Hargeraves 1993). As a matter of fact, though, it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of teachers’ work on its own, without context.
Several researches emphasize that the success of primary school pupils is mainly determined by the parental status (Bourdieu 1966; Coleman 1966). Since the sixties some remarkable findings have pointed out that the social composition of schools has a strong influence on students’ performance in many respects. The school composition has also come to the fore in researches concerning teachers’ work and its effectiveness. The English-speaking technical literature refers to the schools examined by us as ’hard-to-staff’ (Castro et al. 2010; Darling-Hammond 2000), ’most challenging schools’ (Rice 2008) or ’at-risk schools’(Castro et al. 2010; Darling-Hammond 2000) too, where the majority of students have worse socio-cultural environs than the average. The expressions also suggest that the teachers have to meet much more challenges here during their work, and it is important to draw a distinction between schools of low-status student composition and average schools.
In this study we relate to the examination of two fields of issues. On the one hand, we explore the features that can make a teacher and a given school dominated by low-status students successful. The success, as we understand it in this study, is that the students are more effective in academic and non-academic aspects than students from schools with similar composition. On the other hand, this study considers a type of international analyses as a model, namely the comparisons based on statistical analyses, as we compare and contrast data and results of Hungarian schools and teachers with features and achievements of Slovakian schools and teachers.
Our explanatory variables are based on the theory of human and social capital. We studied the traditional sources of human capital (qualifications, experience, etc.), but we also studied the various levels of the social capital resources (Coleman 1966, 1988; Robin–Xanglei–Gideon 1999; Brookover 1976, Pusztai 2015). Researches generally lay emphasis on teacher-student relationship out of the resources of social capital. We also dealt with it concerning both structural aspect and content. A less frequently examined resource of capital is the intra-generational group of capital resources based on the teacher-teacher system of relationships (Ruus et al 2007). We included both its structural features and its content elements in our analysis. The structural side is represented by the indicator based on the frequency of certain joint activities, while the content side is represented by the variables expressing the level of common values.
BOURDIEU, PIERRE 1966. L'école conservatrice: Les inégalités devant l'école et devant la culture. Revue française de sociologie. 7, 3, pp. 325-347 BROOKOVER, WILBUR B. ET AL. 1978. Elemntary School Social Climate and School Achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 15, 2, 301–318. CASTRO, A. J. – KELLY, J. – SHIH, M. 2010. Resilience strategies for new teachers in high-needs areas. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 3, pp. 622–629. COLEMAN, J. S. 1988. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2780243 DARLING-HAMMOND, L. 2000. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement. A review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8, 1, pp.1–46. http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/392/515 DARLING-HAMMOND, L. 1999. State Teaching Policies and Student Achievement. Teaching Quality Policy Brief, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. http://depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/PDFs/Brief_two.pdf HANUSHEK, E. A. – KAIN, J. F. – RIVKIN S.J. 1999. Do Higher Salaries Buy Better Teachers? Working Paper No 7082, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. http://www.nber.org/papers/w7082.pdf HARGREAVES, A. 1993. Changing Teachers: Changing Times: Teachers’ Work and Culture in the Postmodern Age. Cassell, London. MONK, D. H. 1994. Subject Area Preparation of Secondary Mathematics and Science Teachers and Student Achievement. Economics of Education Review, 13, 2, pp. 125–145. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775794900035 PUSZTAI G : Pathways to success in higher education, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag, 278 p. (Higher Education Reserch and Policy; 7.) RICE, S. 2008. Getting good teachers into challenging schools. Curriculum Leadership, 6, 14, pp.1–3. ROBIN R. HENKE – XIANGLEI CH. – GIDEON G. 1999. What Happens in Classrooms? Instructional Practices in Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1994–95, U.S. Department of Education, NCES 1999, 348, Washington, D.C. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999348.pdf RUUS, VIIVE-RIINA ET AL. 2007. Students’ Well-beeing, Coping, Academic Succes, and School Climate. Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 35, 919–936. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/sbp/sbp/2007/00000035/00000007/art00007 SLATER, HELEN – DAVIES, NEIL M. – BURGESS, SIMON 2011. Do Teachers Matter? Measuring the variation in teacher effectiveness in England; Centre for Market and Public Organisation Working Paper http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0084.2011.00666.x/full WENGLINSKY, H. 2000. How Teaching Matters: Bringing the Classroom Back Into Discussions of Teacher Quality. Policy Information Center Report, October, Educational Testing Service. http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PICTEAMAT.pdf
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