23 SES 03 C, Policies for Inclusive and Democratic Education
The marketization of education is an international phenomenon, with widespread consequences for schools, teachers and pupils. The marketization of the Swedish education system is a particularly interesting and extreme case in the international and European context. The realisation of market ideology in the Swedish education system can be viewed as a success in terms of its implementation and public and political acceptance. For instance, the proportions of pupils attending independent schools and the number of independent schools have grown exponentially, and school choice is seen as a democratic right and supported by most established political parties. However, there are several problems. Most importantly, market elements have contributed to increased segregation related to pupils’ background, the provision of special support, and of attainment. This is a real dilemma for a system that has emphasised social inclusion and education for all, egalitarian views that are seen as a point of departure for the Swedish education system. Thus, Swedish education lives with a tension of two educational ideologies, an individualistic-market educational ideology and a collectivistic-egalitarian educational ideology. Of course, both ideologies are far from unidimensional and encompass several different values and concepts.
Several studies conclude or assume that these ideologies – and the policies inspired by them – are contradictory and that market mechanisms will undermine inclusive ambitions. However, this may appear differently in different schools, as policies are interpreted and enacted rather than implemented. While there are examples of policy analyses regarding one or both of these ideologies, and studies regarding their contradictions and incompatibility, there have been few attempts to study empirically the interplay and consequences of their coexistence and enactment in schools. In particular, we know very little about ‘unexceptional’ or ‘ordinary’ schools and their enactment of policies.
The project’s main objective is to develop a theoretical understanding of how these educational ideologies influence school’s work and organisation via policy and the enactment of policy. Using interviews with head teachers, the research questions are:
- How do head teachers address, define and reflect around the challenges of social inclusion and market oriented policies in their work and in their schools?
- To what extent do they believe pupils in general, and vulnerable pupils in particular are affected by market mechanisms in education? What are the challenges and/or benefits?
The theoretical point of departure is inspired by the work of Michael Apple, (2004), Thomas Popkewitz, (2008) and Stephen Ball (1993; Ball et al., 2012). Questions about what education should accomplish, how it is organised and who is to be educated are often implicit in political discourse. Here, educational ideologies are seen as rendering different answers to these questions and thus leading to different implications for educational practice and organisation. It is argued that these ideologies have different conceptualization of society, democracy and even the individual citizen. While public education may historically have collectivistic ideals, the market ideal views the citizen-in-the-making as a consumer rather than as a participant in the shaping of future society. The individual consumer of education is thus to be able to choose schooling according to his/her preferences. This can be opposed to viewing schooling as contributing to social cohesion and inclusion by accommodating a plurality of pupils.
These ideologies in turn find their way to policies, i.e. products of compromises, agendas and influences of various actors at various stages. Often containing contradicting goals and ambitions, policies then have to be interpreted and enacted by schools in a meaningful manner that fulfils the will of regulating and governing agencies as well as appeals to their prospective clients, namely pupils and parents.
Andersson, E., B. Malmberg & Östh, J. (2012). Travel to school distances in Sweden 2000-2006: changing school geography with equality implications. Journal of Transport Geography, 23:34-45. Apple, M. W. (2004). Ideology and curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge. Ball, S. J. (1993). What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2): 10-17. Reprinted in Ball, S.J. (2006). (Ed.) Education Policy and Social Class. The selected works of Stephen J. Ball. New York: Routledge pp. 43-66 Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools do Policy. Policy Enactment in Secondary Schools. London, England: Routledge. Booth, T., Ainscow, M. & Dyson, A. (1997). Understanding Inclusion and exclusion in the English competitive education system. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(4), 337-355. Dyson, A. & Gallanaugh, F. (2007). National policy and the development of inclusive school practices: a case study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 37(4), 437-488 Englund, T. (1998a). Utbildning som “public good “ eller “private good”? In T. Englund (Ed.), Utbildningspolitiskt systemskifte? (pp. 107-142). Stockholm: HLS förlag. Lubienski, C. (2009). Do Quasi-markets Foster Innovation in Education? A Comparative Perspective. OECD Education Working Papers No. 25, OECD Publishing. Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A.-S. and Lundström, U. (2013). Educational marketization the Swedish way. Education Inquiry, 4(3): 497–517. Magnússon, G. (2015). Traditions and Challenges. Special Support in Swedish Independent Compulsory Schools. (Dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University. Popkewitz, T. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the Age of School Reform. Science, Education, and Making Society by Making of the Child. New York, NY: Routledge. Rönnberg, L. (2015). Marketization on export: Representations of the Swedish free school model in English media. European Education Research Journal, 14(6), 549-565. SNAE [The Swedish National Agency for Education]. (2012b). Likvärdig utbildning i svensk grundskola? En kvantiativ analys av likvärdighet över tid. Stockholm, Sweden: The National Agency for Education. SNAE. (2014a). Private actors in preschools and schools. A mapping of independent education providers and owners in Sweden. Stockholm, Sweden: The National Agency for Education. SOU 2013:56. Friskolorna i samhället. Betänkande av friskolekommmittén. [The independent schools in society. Considerations from the independent school committee]. Stockholm, Sweden: Fritzes Trumberg, A. (2011). Den delade skolan. Segregationsprocesser i det svenska skolsystemet. Diss. Örebro: Örebro Universitet. Vlachos, J. (2011). Friskolor i förändring. In L. Hartman (Ed.), Konkurrensens konsekvenser – vad händer med svensk välfärd? (pp.66-110). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS förlag. Waldow, F. (2009). Undeclared imports: silent borrowing in educational policy-making and research in Sweden. Comparative Education, 45(4), 477-494.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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