23 SES 03 A, Politics and Policy Making in Education (Part 3)
Paper Session continued from 23 SES 02 A
Social justice (Connell, 1995; Crahay, 2000; Dubet, 2008; Rawls, 2003; Santomé, 2013) is essential to achieve a more democratic, fair and successful education (Apple & Beane, 1995; 2013; Leite, 2002). Taking into consideration that school education improvement is a process to optimize student results (Marsh, 1990), social justice (Connell, 1995; Santomé, 2013) is fundamental in the promotion of success for all. The concept of social justice points to an inclusive education and embrace a broad view of equity, opportunity and democratic issues (Ball, 2009), providing a space for dialogue where different interest areas can be pushed together (Vincent, 2003). Having these principles and ideas as a reference, it is important to analyse how social justice has been perceived over the years as well as to understand the influence of policy measures that have been implemented to accomplish a curriculum oriented by these goals.
In Portugal, the Portuguese Educational System Law (LBSE, 1986) establishes that school education must ensure the right to a fair and effective equality of opportunities in school access and in school success. However, the obstacles within effective law implementation may be as diverse as the heterogeneity of each context and each social group. The TEIP programme (Educational Territories of Priority Intervention) and the Schools’ External Evaluation process (SEE) are two different measures that currently influence schools in curriculum organization and on teachers’ pedagogical practices. On the one hand, the TEIP programme was created in the 90’s involving schools linked to social inequality 'problems,' dropout and school failure (Leite, Fernandes & Silva, 2013). These schools joined this programme with the main aim of dealing with these situations by being integrated within intervention projects. This policy measure, which may be considered as compensatory education, emerged associated to other international movements such as: the "Head Start" and "Follow-Through" projects (United States); the Zones d'Education Prioritaire (France); and "Educational Priority Areas" and "Education Action Zones" (England). On the other hand, and since 2006, all Portuguese public schools are subject to the schools external evaluation (SEE) process justified in order to 'promote the progress of learning and student outcomes' (IGEC, 2013) where there are external accountability processes (Fullan, Rincon-Gallardo & Hargreaves, 2015) that cannot be ignored. To accomplish its goals, the SEE process follows a framework – based on the Scottish model “How good is our school”– that is structured around three issues: (1) students results; (2) educational service provision; (3) leadership management and school self-evaluation development.
In this context, the main aim of this research is to understand if the TEIP program and the SEE process follow democratic and equity principles, i.e, if these two policy measures contribute to social justice achievement (Connell, 1995; Crahay, 2000; Dubet, 2008; Rawls, 2003; Santomé, 2013). The study started with mapping how the concept of social justice has been perceived over the years in scientific publications in relationship with curricular and evaluation practices in order to build an analysis grid of 4 case studies.
Afonso, A. J. (2009). Políticas avaliativas e accountability em educação - subsídios para um debate ibero-americano. Sísifo. Revista de Ciências da Educação, 09, pp. 57-70. Apple, M. & Beane, J. (1995). Democratic schools. University of Michigan: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Apple, M. (2013). Sociologia da Educação: Análise Internacional. Porto Alegre: Penso Editora. Bardin, L. (2009). Análise de Conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70. Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (1994). Investigação Qualitativa em Educação. Porto: Porto Editora. Bonal, X. (2003). The Neoliberal Educational Agenda and the Legitimation Crisis: old and new state strategies. British Journal of Sociology of Education, (24)2, pp. 159-175. Connell, R. (1995). Estabelecendo a diferença: escolas, famílias, e divisão social. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas. Crahay, M. (2000). L’École peut-elle être juste et efficace? De l’égalité des chances et l’égalité des acquis. Revue Française de Pédagogie, Bruxelles, 135, 223-225. Dubet, F. (2008). O que é uma escola justa? A escola das oportunidades. São Paulo: Cortez. Fullan, M., Rincon-Gallardo, S., & Hargreaves, A. (2015). Professional capital as accountability. Education Policy, Analysis Archives, 23(15), pp. 2-22. Hopf, C. (2004). Qualitative Interviews: An Overview. In U. Flick, E. Kardoff & I. Steinke (Eds.) A companion to qualitative research (pp. 203-208). London: Sage Publications. Kitchenham, B. (2010) What's up with software metrics - A preliminary mapping study. Journal of Systems and Software, 83(1), pp. 37-51. Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis. An Introduction to its Methodology. London: SAGE Publications. Leite, C. (2002). O Currículo e o Multiculturalismo no Sistema Educativo Português. Coimbra: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Leite, C.; Fernandes, P.; Silva, S. M. (2013). O lugar da educação para a cidadania no sistema educativo português: perspetivas de docentes de uma escola TEIP. Educação, 36(1), pp. 35-43. Mainardes, J. & Marcondes, M. (2009).Entrevista com Stephen J. Ball: um diálogo sobre justiça social, pesquisa e política educacional. Educ. Soc., Campinas, 30(106), pp. 303-318. Marsh, J. C. (1990). Managing for total school improvement. In J. Chapman (Ed.) School-Based Decision-Making and Management, (pp. 147-159). Lewes: Falmer Press. Rawls, J. (2003). Justiça como equidade: uma reformulação. São Paulo: Martins Fontes. Santomé, J. T. (2013). Currículo escolar e justiça social: o Cavalo de Troia da Educação. Porto Alegre: Penso. Thomas, G. (2011). How to do your Case Study: A Guide for Students and Researchers. SAGE Publications Inc. Vincent, C. (2003). Social justice, Education and Identity. Routledge. Yin, R. (1994). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
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Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
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Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
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Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
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