19 SES 04.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session
The research questions of this study were:
How effective are 3dimensional online virtual worlds to conduct ethnographic research?
What are the students’ perceptions about utilizing virtual worlds to conduct research?
The theoretical framework utilized to develop the research is the theory of situated cognition. This theory focuses on the relationship between the individual, the social group, and the context where learning occurs, and it has evolved to include the design of technology or computer based instruction (Altalib, 2002). This theory also states that knowledge is situated, and it is affected by the activity, context, and culture. From a situated perspective, it becomes impossible to separate the learner, the curriculum, and the context in which learning occurs (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991).
Conducting ethnographic research is a complex investigative process that involves a series of steps to discover what people do, and then to provide an interpretation of those actions, based on the researcher’s personal or professional experiences (LeCompte & Schensul, 1999). It may involve systematic observation, interviewing, or archival research to collect data (Angrosino, 2007; Fetterman, 1998) and encompasses several stages, such as selecting a setting, gaining access, presenting oneself, and gathering and recording information (Sangasubana, 2011; Singleton & Straits, 2005) to ensure that “researchers gather data carefully, thoroughly, and in a way that is understandable to others, and that they use procedures that can be replicated by other researchers...” (LeCompte & Schensul, 1999, p. 2).
Teaching how to conduct ethnographic research can be a daunting task, especially when limited funding has constrained researchers’ abilities to travel with students to investigate and observe people within their communities. An added challenge surfaces when teaching how to conduct ethnographic research occurs in a course delivered 100% online. Students might be situated in different geographic zones and with different work and life schedules, making it difficult to conduct group work or travel to a specific location, as is the case of the participants in this study. Researchers and scholars are seeking new ways to engage and teach their students ethnographic practices, with the same rigorous approach and strategies employed in ethnographic investigations in the field, but without investing extensive amounts of money required to travel, live, and interact with a community.
Altalib, H. (2002). Situated cognition: Describing the theory. ERIC Reproduction Services ED 475 183. Angrosino, M. (2007). Doing ethnographic and observational research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Berg, B. L. (2004). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th ed. Boston: Pearson Education Bishop, G., Bricken, W., Brooks, F. P., et. al. (1992). Research Directions in Virtual Environments: Report of an NSF Invitational Workshop. Computer Graphics, 26(3), 153-177. Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. 3(2):83 Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-41. Carspecken, P. (1995). Critical ethnography in educational research. New York. Routhledge. Creswell, J. W. & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-131. Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Eisenhart, M. (2001). Changing conceptions of culture and ethnographic methodology: Recent thematic shifts and their implications for research on teaching. In V. Richardson (Ed.), The handbook of research on teaching. (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Fetterman, D. M. (1998). Ethnography: Step by step (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Guest, G. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Grimes, J. M., Fleischman, K. R., & Jaeger, P. T. (2009). Virtual guinea pigs: Ethical implications of human subjects research in virtual worlds. International Journal of Internet Research Ethics, 2, 38–54. Kawulich, Barbara. (2017). EDSI 9962 Qualitative Research Methods [Syllabus]. Carrollton, GA: Leadership, Research, and School Improvement, University of West Georgia. John, G., & Reve, T. (1982). The reliability and validity of key informant data from dyadic relationships in marketing channels. Journal of Marketing Research 19(11), 517-524 Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. LeCompte, M., & J. Schensul. (1999). Designing and conducting ethnographic research. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira. Mazuryk, T., & Gervautz, M. (1996). Virtual reality-history, applications, technology and future. Virtual Reality. Citeseer. McKee, H. A. & Porter, J. E. (2009). Playing a good game: Ethical issues in researching MMOGs and virtual worlds. International Journal of Internet Research Ethics, 2(1), 5-37. Saldana, J. (2009). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Sangasubana, N. (2011). How to conduct ethnographic research. The Qualitative Report, 16(2), 567–573.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
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Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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