19 SES 08 B, After School and Out of School Learning Contexts
Current global policy discourses of parental involvement in education and the social inclusion of diverse marginalized and multi-ethnic populations have been lauded as the key to remediating educational inequalities, such as underachievement and low retention and participation rates in higher education (Reay, 2010). Homework policies, instituted by governments over the last decade, provide a micro example of the ways in which educational policies may be offered as a panacea for improved academic outcomes for all students. For example, in part as a response to the imperative to ‘raise standards’, and develop ‘quality learning outcomes, students in numerous countries are spending increasing amounts of time on homework, particularly in primary schools (Baker and LeTendre, 2005). Further, parental participation in homework in the UK, Australia, and in many European countries has been central to the ‘home-school partnership’ agenda, championed by governments as a cost-neutral mechanism for increasing academic outcomes. However, homework policies discursively position parents as capable educational workers, despite research evidence that poor or culturally and linguistically diverse families may not have access to the sets of social and cultural capital required to fully engage with homework in the manner assumed in policy (Dooley, 2009; Hutchison, 2011). The widespread implementation of such policies can mask locally differentiated community resources and fail to improve the major educational inequities and exclusions they were intended to address.
Drawing on a series of ethnographic studies in Australia, Denmark and the UK into the lived experience of homework for students and their families in socio-culturally diverse communities, this presentation investigates the capacity for participatory visual research methods to make visible the enduring complexity of social inequalities and the challenges for educational research in addressing the equity agendas of schooling. There are two core sets of issues this research seeks to address. The first is the issue of class-based educational disadvantage for certain groups of students and the role of homework in intensifying educational inequalities. The second is the effect of homework on home – school relationships and on the identities of the parents, teachers and children who are subject to its regulatory functions. From this, three key research questions arise: To what extent and through which mechanisms does homework transmit, preserve or secure educational privilege for different groups of students? What insights emerge into home-school relations through a cross-cultural comparison of homework as a socio-culturally located practice? What are the implications for social and educational policies?
While traditionally, the sociological study of the impact of various aspects of schooling on children’s lives has been via observation (Hargreaves, 1967; Ball, 1981; Heath, 1983), visual methodologies for researching lived experience have sought to position children and young people as active participants in the research process. Visual research methods are increasingly being mobilized to explore situated experiences across a range of educational settings encompassing preschool (Einarsdottir, 2007), secondary science classrooms (Hubber et al, 2010), community centres (White, 2007), homes (Bräu,et al, 2017) and across in and outside school environments (Hernández-Hernández & Sancho-Gil, 2016). In this participatory methodology, children and young people are positioned as competent knowledge producers, capable of developing and expressing their own unique perspectives on issues that concern them, such as schooling and homework (Hutchison, 2011). In Bourdieuian terms, visual methods have the potential to foreground the embodied nature of habitus, in making visible the material and emotional realities of the social and cultural worlds in which learning occurs and illustrating the ways in which various capitals are mobilised by parents, teachers, tutors, young people and children to shape learner dispositions and identities.
Baker, D. & LeTendre, G., 2005, National Differences, Global Similarities: World Culture and the Future of Schooling, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press. Ball, S., 1981, Beachside Comprehensive: A Case Study of Schooling, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Bourdieu, P., Accardo, A., Balazs, G., Beaud, S., Bonvin, F., Bourdieu, E., Bourgois, P., Broccolichi, S., Champagne, P. & Christin, J. P. F. 1999, The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society, Polity, Cambridge, UK. Bräu, K. Harring, M. & Weyl, C. (2017) ‘Homework practices: role conflicts concerning parental involvement,’ Ethnography and Education, 12:1, 64-77. Dooley, K. 2009, Homework for refugee middle school students with backgrounds marked by low levels of engagement with English school literacy. Literacy Learning: the Middle Years, 17(3), 28-36. Einarsdottir, J. 2007, Research with children: methodological and ethical challenges, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 15 (2) 197-211. Hargreaves, D. 1967, Social Relations in a Secondary School, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul. Heath, S. B. 1983, Ways with Words: Language, life and work in community and classrooms, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Hernández-Hernández, F. and Sancho-Gil J. M. , 2016, Using meta-ethnographic analysis to understand and represent youth’s notions and experiences of learning in and out of secondary school, Ethnography and Education, Hubber, P., Tytler, R. and Haslam, F. 2010, ‘Teaching and Learning about Force with a Representational Focus: Pedagogy and Teacher Change,’ Research in Science Education, 40 (1) 5-28. Hutchison, K. 2011, ‘Homework through the Eyes of Children: what does visual ethnography invite us to see?’ European Educational Research Journal, 10 (4), 545-558. Reay, D., 2010, ‘Sociology, social class and education’ in Apple, M., Ball, S., Armando Gaudin, L., (eds) The Routledge International Handbook of the Sociology of Education, Routledge, Oxon and New York, pp 396-403. White, M.L., 2009 ‘Ethnography 2.0: writing with digital video,’ Ethnography and Education, 4:3, 389-414
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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