10 SES 01 D, Programmes and Approaches: Outside and inside teacher education
Along with the rise of cross-national educational tests such as TIMSS, PISA, and PIRLS, countries have been compelled to involve in a challenging international competition against each other to prove their educational achievements (Akiba & LeTendre, 2009). While policymakers have been enacting several reforms to improve schools and raise educational quality, it has been widely recognized that every single aspect of a school reform, first and foremost, depends on highly qualified teachers to be successful (Darling-Hammond, 2010), supported by the argument that teacher quality is a strong determinant of students’ learning outcomes (Berry, Hoke, & Hirsch, 2004; Betts, Zau, & Rice, 2003; Buddin & Zamarro, 2008; Darling-Hammond & Sykes, 2003; NCATE, 2006; OECD, 2005; Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005).
Although there has been a great deal of interest in finding new education policies targeted to improve teacher quality (Akiba, LeTendre, & Scribner, 2007; Goldhaber, 2007), the most struggling problems in education systems have still been resulting from a lack of highly qualified teachers (OECD, 2005) as education systems confront a challenge in recruiting, preparing, and retaining them. In fact, while there have been many initiatives to address this quality teacher shortage problem, they have mostly been short-term remedies (Schleicher, 2012), which tended to emphasize teacher quantity over teacher quality and thereby, exacerbated the problem of underqualified teachers (OECD, 2005; Schleicher, 2012). Preparing high quality teachers is, indeed, a goal that requires to adopt a systems approach for the issue, which involves attracting, preparing, and supporting high quality teachers together (Darling-Hammond, 2010; OECD, 2005; Wenglinsky, 2000) as they are considered to be different but interconnected ways of improving teacher workforce (Goldhaber & Hansen, 2008). In so doing, a systems approach might contribute to higher teacher qualifications, lower teacher turnover or attrition rates, and less teacher shortages, as well as higher student achievement and greater success of school systems (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Darling-Hammond & Berry, 1999; OECD, 2005; Schleicher, 2012).
Building on these, this study aims to investigate the views of in-service teachers on the teacher education system in Turkey as well as their suggestions regarding an effective teacher education. In particular, the study seeks to answer the following research questions:
- What are the views of in-service teachers regarding the (a) pre-service teacher admission system, (b) teacher preparation, and (c) teacher appointment system in Turkey?
- What are the suggestions of in-service teachers regarding an effective (a) pre-service teacher admission system, (b) teacher preparation, and (c) teacher appointment system?
The study addresses the European Commission’s call for quality teacher education as it offers implications of how teacher education systems could be improved. Along with the cross-national comparisons of student achievement (e.g., PISA, TALIS), the growing expectations of parents or other stakeholders for high quality teachers, and the need to reform the system of teacher education in the member states (European Commission, 2013), the key role of teachers and higher quality teacher education has been raised by the European Union (Caena, 2013) through international commitments (e.g., the Bologna process of Higher Education reform) and the development of Qualifications framework (European Commission, 2013) so as to create Europe of Knowledge and increase the competitiveness of the European Union, transform European societies into learning societies, and facilitate the process of European integration for economic welfare and social cohesion (Buchberger, Campos, Kallos, & Stephenson, 2000). Within this framework, the current study contributes to the landscape of teacher education as it considers the teacher education system as a whole and provides insights for an effective pre-service teacher admission, teacher preparation, and teacher appointment system.
Selected References Akiba M., & LeTendre, G. (2009). Improving teacher quality: The U.S. teaching force in global context. New York: Teachers College Press. Akiba, M., LeTendre, G. K., & Scribner, J. P. (2007). Teacher quality, opportunity gap, and national achievement in 46 countries. Educational Researcher, 36(7), 369-387. Berry, B., Hoke, M., & Hirsch, E. (2004). NCLB: Highly qualified teachers: The search for highly qualified teachers. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(9), 684-689. Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. The USA: Pearson Education. Betts, J. R., Zau, A. C., Rice, L. A. (2003). Determinants of student achievement: New evidence from San Diego. Retrieved from Public Policy Institute of California website: http://repec.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/R_803JBR.pdf Buchberger, F., Campos, B. P., Kallos, D., Stephenson, J. (2000). Green paper on teacher education in Europe: High quality teacher education for high quality education and training. Retrieved from http://www.cep.edu.rs/sites/default/files/greenpaper.pdf Buddin, R., & Zamarro, G. (2008). Teacher quality, teacher licensure tests, and student achievement. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2008/RAND_WR555.pdf Caena, F. (2013). Supporting teacher competence development for better learning outcomes. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/policy/school/doc/teachercomp_en.pdf Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1), 1-44. Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Evaluating teacher effectiveness: How teacher performance assessments can measure and improve teaching. Retrieved from https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/evaluating-teacher-effectiveness_0.pdf Darling-Hammond, L., & Berry, B. (1999). Recruiting teachers for the 21st century: The foundation of educational equity. The Journal of Negro Education, 68(3), 254-279. DarlingHammond, L., & Sykes, G. (2003). Wanted: A national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the "highly qualified teacher" challenge. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(33), 1-55. European Commission (2013). Supporting teacher competence development for better learning outcomes. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/school/doc/teachercomp_en.pdf Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Goldhaber, D. (2007). Everyone’s doing it, but what does teacher testing tell us about teacher effectiveness? The Journal of Human Resources, 42(4), 765-794. Goldhaber, D., & Hansen, M. (2010). Assessing the potential of using value-added estimates of teacher job performance for making tenure decisions. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509689.pdf Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2011). Designing qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) (2006). What makes a teacher effective? Retrieved from http://www.ncate.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=JFRrmWqa1jU%3d&tabid=361
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