Internationalization is one of the key contemporary debates within the Higher Education (HE) sector. For the last two decades, many universities worldwide have proclaimed their ‘international’ status, but there has been little consensus about how this status can be defined. Internationalisation of higher education (IoHE) has been associated with quality in programmes (Urban and Palmer, 2013), with cooperation and partnership between HE institutions, and hence with the goals of Erasmus+ capacity building programmes (EACEA, 2016). However, in many western institutions the strategic emphasis has shifted to competition, with internationalization regarded as a means for revenue generation, and to enhance prestige and global rankings (Henard et al., 2012; Seeber et al., 2016).
A major challenge is evident to foreground the positive benefits of IoHE in an increasingly competitive HE environment, and to emphasise that a crucial goal of internationalised HE is ‘to provide the most relevant education to students who will be the citizens, entrepreneurs and scientists of tomorrow’ (Henard et al., 2012, p.7). We concur with the view that internationalisation should not be regarded as an end in itself, but seen instead as a driver for change and improvement (Henard et al., ibid), to promote more social and values-based goals. This seems timely, given recent political events in the UK (with the referendum leading to the Brexit vote), America (with the election of Donald Trump) and Europe (with political unrest arising from the forced migration of thousands of people fleeing conflict in their home countries). These events have revealed deeply rooted social schisms. This requires that internationalisation strategies are approached with integrity (Inan et al., 2014), that political and economic rationales are put in context and that intercultural understanding is emphasised as an important aspect of staff and student development in internationalised HE settings (Jones and de Wit, 2012; de Wit et al., 2015).
This paper takes a novel approach by focusing on 'internationalisation at home' (IaH) to enable the non-mobile majority of staff and students in HE to experience an international and intercultural dimension in their work and study at their home campus. It explores the dimensions of a more inclusive model for institutional review and framework for development of IaH, and argues for practical steps to internationalise the university experience for 'home' and ‘international’ students. It addresses the research questions: Can IaH serve as an agent of change to address political or economic, religious or cultural, ethnic or linguistic conflict (Marantz-Gal, 2016; Goren and Yemini 2016)? Can IaH serve as a means to develop in graduates the analytical and personal abilities and dispositions that are essential to underpin an active contribution in globalised, knowledge–based economies (Blasco and Tackney, 2013; King 2016)? The paper explores these concerns as they affect individual students and scholars, but also in their implications for institutional policy- and decision-making (Weimer, 2016; EAIE, 2016; EU Resolution of 19 January 2016). It argues for internationalisation to be embedded in institutional cycles of review and development to stimulate change to existing policies and practices in light of institutional, sector, national and international academic and social challenges (Qiang, 2003).
Beelen J. and Jones, E. 2015 redefining Internationalisation at Home in A. Curaj et al. (eds.)The European Higher Education Area. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-20877-0_5 Blasco, M. and Tackney, C. 2013 ‘“If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”: internationalisation and the erosion of the positive hidden curriculum in Danish higher education’, International Journal of Management in Education, 7 (4), 341–359 de Wit, H., Hunter, F., Howard, L., Egron-Polak, E. 2015 Internationalisation of higher education. Report for the European Parliament http://www.europarl.europa.eu/studies EACEA 2016 Key Action 2 Erasmus+ Capacity Building in the field of Higher Education http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/home/erasmus-plus/actions EAIE, 2016 Spring Forum: Internationalisation in a Conflicted World. EUA 2012 Evaluating the ‘Mobility Mapping Tool’: MAUNIMO project evaluation seminar at University of Trento 10 May 2012 www.eua.be/activities-services/news/newsitem/12-05-10/Evaluating_the_Mobility_Mapping_Tool_MAUNIMO_project_evaluation_seminar_at_University_of_Trento.aspx European Parliament 19 Jan 2016 The role of intercultural dialogue, cultural diversity and education in promoting EU fundamental values http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/library/publications/2016/communication-preventing-radicalisation_en.pdf Goren, H. and Yemini, M., 2016 Global citizenship education in context: teacher perceptions at an international school and a local Israeli school. Compare, 2016, 46(5), 832-853 Hénard,F., Diamond, L., Roseveare, D. 2012. Approaches to Internationalisation and Their Implications for Strategic Management and Institutional Practice. OECD, 2012. Inan, A., Wick, D., van Liempd, H.G., Fastner, M. 2014. Internationalisation with Integrity: modelling a new approach. European Association for International Education, 25 July 2014. http://www.eaie.org/blog/internationalisation-with-integrity/ Jon, J-E. (2013) ‘Realizing internationalization at home in Korean higher education promoting domestic students’ interaction with international students and intercultural competence’, Journal of Studies in International Education, 17, (4), 455–470. Leask, B. and Bridge, C. (2013) ‘Comparing internationalisation of the curriculum in action across disciplines: theoretical and practical perspectives’, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 43, (1), 79–101. Marantz- Gal, A., 2016 Not just teaching, but peace-ing. Spring Forum 2016 Internationalisation in a conflicted world http://www.eaie.org/eaie-resources/library/publication/Forum-Magazine/2016-spring-forum Seeber, M., Cattaneo, M., Huisman, J., Paleari, S. 2016 Why do higher education institutions internationalize? An investigation of the multilevel determinants of internationalization rationales. Higher Education, 2016, 72:685–702 DOI 10.1007/s10734-015-9971-x Urban, S.L., and Palmer, 2014 International Students as a Resource for Internationalization of Higher Education. Journal of Studies in International Education 18(4): 305-324 · Weimer, L. International Higher Education in 2016: the year in review. 21 Dec. 2016
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