18 SES 10 A, Innovative Pedagogical Approaches in Physical Education and Sport
It is a common and well-known situation that, in the work of gymnastic and acrobatic skills within the area of Physical Education, there are groups of students that get blocked in the practice of certain gymnastic elements (Ávalos, Martínez, & Merma, 2015). It produces in them a rejection of acrobatic skills, even though its practice is introduced by presenting the corresponding activities and exercises with their progressions from lesser to greater difficulty and with the pertinent measures of support and help for their achievement. Some studies highlight the negative dispositions towards the gymnastic practice, fundamentally focused on the fear, the rejection and the unpleasant experiences in the physical education classes (Ávalos, Martínez, & Merma, 2015; Nunomura, Okade, & Carrara, 2012).
Ashford, Biddle and Goudas (1993), in an article in which they study the influence of the use of different styles of teaching on the variables of class climate and motivation, determine that when the classes are planned and carried out carefully and the tasks are oriented and controlled by the teachers, they may have positive effects on motivation, satisfaction and learning. In this sense, the teaching style adopted by the teacher determines the relationship between the teacher and the different elements of the didactic act, in a way that marks the relationships between them. The effective teacher should master different teaching styles as well as being able to apply them after establishing a previous analysis of the situation. It should also know how to combine them properly and how to transform them to create new ones (Sicilia & Delgado, 2002). If we stick to the field of Physical Activity teaching, these authors refer to the concept of Strategy in Practice as the specific way to face each of the motor tasks that make up a teaching progression of a particular motor skill. These can be used from the different teaching/learning styles identified in the acquisition of any driving situation.
In the field of Physical Activity and Sport, many authors defend theories where students are able to develop more autonomous behaviors and communication skills through collaborative methodologies (Fernández-Río, 2006; Grineski, 1996; Hargreaves, 2005; Slavin, 1990; Vernetta et al., 2013).
The majority of the existing studies in the field of teaching of gymnastic and acrobatic skills analyze those aspects which are related to learning strategies, such as the planning and organization of cognitive, affective and motor mechanisms to face global or specific learning situations (Monereo, 1990), or such as the decision-making that teachers make based on the acquired knowledge, selecting the most appropriate ones to the context in which it places the teaching/learning action (Monereo & Pozo, 2011; Pozo et al., 2010). In the field of gymnastic and acrobatic skills, collaborative strategies can help the student to obtain a more meaningful and more responsible learning (Vernetta, López, & Delgado, 2009). Recently, Vernetta, Gutiérrez, Lopez and Ariza (2013) use the methodological variable, cooperative learning in this case, in order to find out if there is any improvement in the learning of these skills, by using an experimental design.
For what has been exposed before, the aim of our study is to analyze if the learning of the gymnastic and acrobatic skills improves by using collaborative teaching styles in relation to traditional teaching styles.
Ashford, B., Biddle, S. & Goudas, M. (1993). Participation in community sports centres: motives and predictors of enjoyment. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11(3), 249-256. Ávalos, M. A., Martínez, M. A. & Merma, G. (2015). La pérdida de oportunidades del aprendizaje gimnástico: Las voces del profesorado de Educación Secundaria. Ágora para la Educación Física, 17(2), 130-147. Fernández-Río, J. (2006). Estructuras de trabajo cooperativas, aprendizaje a través de claves y pensamiento crítico en la enseñanza de los deportes en el ámbito educativo. In Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Actividades Físicas Cooperativas. Fernández-Río, J. & Méndez-Giménez, A. (2016). El aprendizaje cooperativo: Modelo pedagógico para Educación Física. Retos. Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 29, 201-206. Grineski, S. (1996). Cooperative learning in physical education. Champaign II, Human Kinetics. Hargreaves, H. (2005). Personalising learning. iNet, UK, viewed on 28 June 2013, http://www.sstinet.net/resources/publications/personalisinglearningseries.aspx Monereo, C. (1990). Las estrategias de aprendizaje en la educación formal: Enseñar a pensar y sobre el pensar. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 13(50), 3-25. Monereo, C. & Pozo, J. (2011). La identidad en psicología de la educación. Necesidad, utilidad y límites. Madrid: Narcea. Nunomura, M., Okade, Y. & Carrara, P. (2012). How much artistic gymnastics coaches know about their gymnasts' motivation. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 4(2), 27-37. Pozo, J., Martín, E., Pérez, P., Scheuer, N., Mateos, M. & De la Cruz, M. (2010). Ni contigo ni sin ti. Las relaciones entre cognición y acción en la práctica educativa. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 33, (2), 179-184. Sicilia, A. & Delgado, M. A. (2002). Educación Física y estilos de enseñanza: Análisis de la participación del alumnado desde un modelo socio-cultural del conocimiento escolar. Barcelona: Inde. Slavin, R. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory research and practice. New York: Plenum. Verneta, M., López, J. & Delgado, M. A. (2009). La coevaluación en el aprendizaje de las habilidades gimnásticas en el ámbito del espacio europeo universitario. European Journal of Human Movement. Motricidad, 23, 123-141. Vernetta, M., Gutiérrez, A., López, J. & Ariza, L. (2013). El aprendizaje cooperativo en educación superior. Una experiencia en la adquisición de habilidades gimnásticas. Cultura y Educación: Culture and Education, 25(1), 3-16.
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