11 SES 09 B, Can We Trust Assessments to Improve Schools' Quality?
The purpose of schools has always been to offer quality education, especially in recent years. The concept of quality needs to be defined by each organisation according to the characteristics of their education project, mission and vision. Therefore, it is a continuously evolving concept, which must be prepared, shared and internalised by the members comprising the education community (López Cabanes and Ruiz Gimeno, 2004).
What are the factors that help an organisation provide quality education? Many studies have been carried out on this topic. As pointed out by Tiana Ferrer (1999), the OECD already established, back in 1991, a series of factors, including the necessary existence and joint definition of clear standards and goals, which entails strategic and continuous planning in the organisation, taking into account the results of the institutional evaluation conducted previously.
To address this quality requirement and improve the services provided, the implementation of quality management standards and systems, especially ISO and EFQM, has been one of the objectives of schools in the last few years.
One of the key dimensions, both in ISO and EFQM Standards, is the school management system that contemplates a planning culture, understood as a tool for diagnosis, analysis, reflection and collective decision-making and policies for teacher support and recognition. Authors such as Bernhardt (2013) and Davies and Ellison (2013), consider education planning a factor of organisation effectiveness and improvement. Continuing with Drucker (1980) "...planning does not mean knowing what decision I'm going to make tomorrow, but rather what decision I need to make today to achieve what I want tomorrow". A decision which must be made by designing strategies that enable its achievement. Therefore, it is an institutional management key, as it strives to improve education quality. In relation to policies for teacher support and recognition, these are crucial to generate positive feelings towards their work and greater engagement with the organisation (Villa, Troncoso and Díez, 2015).
There has been a lot of research on the implementation of Quality Management Systems to improve schools (López Alfaro, 2010; Cantón Mayo, I. & Arias Gago, A. R., 2009; Ramírez & Lorenzo, E., 2009: Martínez Mediano & Riopérez Losada, 2005; Quong, T & Walker, A., 1996; Bradley, L. H. & Kloppenborg, T. J., 1994) and also on the partial results achieved by the ISO 9000 Standards and the EFQM Model. However, there is a gap in the available scientific literature regarding the consolidation of results over time and the culture of quality created once the system has been internalised by everyone involved in the institution (Detert, Schroeder & Mauriel, 2000), especially in the field of education. Further research is needed to be able to appreciate the true impact, understood as substantial changes in the organisations that are sustainable over time, whether in staff attitude, work style, climate, school culture, planning, evaluation or development of the organisations (Fernández Díaz, 2012).
This study aims to compare the two models, since one of the main differences between the ISO Standards and the EFQM Model are the rules and regulations, which can lead to differences in terms of impact on generating a planning culture.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the difference between two most frequently used quality management approaches implemented by firms ISO 9000 and EFQM (Bayo-Moriones, Merino Díaz, Escamilla de León y Selvam 2011; Heras, Casadesús and Marimon, 2011; Marimon, Heras y Casadesús, 2009; Arrizabalaga and Londeta, 2007; Senlle and Gutierrez, 2005), in terms of the impact on adoption of planning culture in pre-university schools.
BAYO-MORIONES, A., MERINO, J., ESCAMILLA, S. & SELVAM, R. M. (2011). The impact of ISO 9000 and EFQM on the use of flexible work practices. International Journal of Production Economics, 130, (1) 33–42. BERNHARDT, V. (2013). Data analysis for continuous school improvement. New York: Routledge. Retrieved from http://books.google.es/books?hl=es&lr=&id=STtnAQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=school+improvement+and+strategic+planning&ots=TEeaYnioJW&sig=nBjmVTDhE018T3G_2MnXcdjoGlc DAVIES, B. & ELLISON, L. (2013). The new strategic direction and development of the school: Key frameworks for school improvement planning. New York: Routledge. Retrieved from http://books.google.es/books?hl=es&lr=&id=XsvB0B6QCQkC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=school+improvement+and+strategic+planning&ots=LJ1NF-djg&sig=AG_vfC18wDGPV__hJseLAirjiPo DETERT, J. R., SCHROEDER, R. G. y MAURIEL J. J. (2000). A Framework for Linking Culture and Improvement Initiatives in Organizations. Academic Management Review, 25 (4), 850-863. DRUCKER, P. (1980). Managing in Turbulent Times. London: Heinemann. FERNÁNDEZ DÍAZ, M. J. (2013). Evaluación del impacto para un cambio sostenible en las organizaciones educativas. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 254, 119-140. HERAS-SAIZARBITORIA, I; CASADESÚS, M.; y MARIMÓN, F. (2011). The impact of ISO 9001 standard and the EFQM model: The view of the assessors. Total Quality Management, 22(2), 197-218. LÓPEZ ALFARO, P. (2010). Factores de calidad educativa, Estudios Pedagógicos, XXXVI, Nº 1, 147-158. MARTÍNEZ-MEDIANO, C. y ARRIBAS, J. A. (2016). Valoración de la Aplicación de los Sistemas de Gestión de la Calidad ISO 9001 en los Centros Educativos a través de un Cuestionario, Meta: Avaliação, Rio de Janeiro, v. 8, n. 23, p. 326-358. MARTÍNEZ MEDIANO, C. Y RIOPÉREZ LOSADA, N. (2005). El Modelo de excelencia de la EFQM y su aplicación para la mejora de los centros educativos. Educación XXI: Revista de la Facultad de Educación, 8, 35-66. MAYDEU-OLIVARES, A. & MCARDLE, J. J. (2005). Contemporary Psychometrics. A Ferstschrift to Roderick P. Mc Donald. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. OCDE (2001). Schooling for tomorrow: Trends and scenarios. Paris: CERI-OECD. PARDO, A. y RUIZ, M.A. (2002). SPSS 11: Guía para el Análisis de Datos. Madrid: McGraw-Hill QUONG, T. y WALKER, A. (1996). TQM and school restructuring: A case study. School Organisation, 16(2), 219-231. STEVENS, J.P. (2009). Applied Multivariate Statistics for Social Sciences (5th Edition). Routledge Academic. TIANA FERRER, A. (1999). La evaluación y la calidad: dos cuestiones de discusión. Ensaio. Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação, vol. 7, nº 22, pp. 25-46. VILLA, A., TRONCOSO, P. E. y DÍEZ, F. (2015). Estructura latente y fiabilidad de las dimensiones que explican el impacto de los sistemas de gestión de calidad en los centros educativos. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 33(1), 65-82.
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