11 SES 02, Teaching within Inclusive Schools
The topic refers to teacher’s leadership profile according to a reference model of pedagogical or educational leadership. Te research tries to answer to questions such as: is it necessary to consider the teacher as a true leader? What are the typical dimensions of an authentic educational leader? Is it necessary to have teachers able to act as authentic pedagogical leaders? What is the leadership profile of teachers working in European educational systems?
Te current most relevant specialized literature emphasizes that the need of leaders who promote effective activity of individuals and groups is now evident in all areas of our society. And according to most recent sources, the need of authentic pedagogical or educational leaders is even more important if one takes into account the role of social leadership that corresponds to educators in the new society of knowledge (Branson, 2010; Coronel, 2005; European Commission, 2013; Gajda and Koliba, 2008; Perrenoud, 2013; Pont, Nusche and Hopkins, 2008; Pont, Nusche and Moorman, 2008).
Need of educational leaders in Europe
The important investments that education persistently asks from taxpayers and families for an education of quality (Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, 1994). But the authentic quality of education can only be achieved if human resources of educational institutions work with high levels of satisfaction: only a suitable approach and support of the leadership role may lead to such effects. Undoubtedly, if all members of educational institutions must exercise the role of educational leadership, this role must be especially incarnated by the professionals directly involved with the promotion and improvement of education, i.e. by teachers and educators. The European Union in its "Conclusions of the Council on Effective Educational Leadership' (Diario Oficial de la Unión Europea C30 / 2 of February 2014) states: "Effective school leadership is a key factor for coining a general environment for teaching and learning, provoking aspirations and supporting students, parents and staff, thus promoting higher levels of performance".
Need of teachers as educational leaders
The European Union considers leadership as one of the most important factors to attain an education of quality; but it emphasizes teacher’s leadership as a propriety due to the fact that he/she has the most direct effect on student’s learning (European Commission, 2013). Teacher’s basic mission must be to provoke student’s ability for he/she to discover the necessary knowledge, the way of acquiring it and the proceedings of exploiting or using it for his/her practical life (Gento, 1994).
Attention to educational treatment of diversity
The first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (approved by the General Assembly of United Nations on December 10th 1948) states: “Every person is born free and equal in dignity and rights” (ONU, 1948). The same Declaration issues: “Every person has right to education’. And, as a consequence, the concern must be how to attain that every person, most particularly those with stressed diversity, have access to a true education of quality.
The need to offer specialized educational treatment to every person accommodated to the particular type and degree of diversity is expressed by the ‘Madrid Declaration’ of 2002 issued by the ‘European Congress on Disability: “Only those politics that respect diversity will be successful” (Congreso Europeo sobre Personas con Discapacidad, 2002). And the President of the ‘European Agency for Development of Special Educational Needs’, Jorge Greve (2009), declares: “Working, by considering people’s diversity is the most important challenge facing educational institutions and their professionals” (p. 30) As a consequence, the need of educational leaders and teachers able to promote education with this approach of attention to diversity is one of the most relevant needs of today’s education.
Bertone, A., Poggi, M. y Teobaldo (1995). Evaluación. Nuevos Significados para una Práctica Compleja. Buenos Aires: Kapelusz. Best, J.W. & Kahn, J.V. (2003). Research in Education (9th edition).Boston: Library of Congress. Branson, Ch. M. (2010). Leading Educational Change Wisely. Totterdam: Sense Publishers. Congreso Europeo sobre Personas con Discapacidad (2002). Declaración de Madrid. Recuperado dehttp://www0.usal.es/webusal/files/DeclaracionMadrid_2002.pdf. Coronel, J.M. (2005). El liderazgo del profesorado en las organizaciones educativas: temáticas para su análisis e investigación. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 232, 471-490. Diario Oficial de la Unión Europea (2014). Conclusiones sobre Liderazgo Educativo Eficaz (C/302 de 1 de febrero). European Commission (2013).Teachers, School Leaders and Teacher Educators. Recuperado de https//ec.europa.eu/education/school- Gajda, R. &Koliba, C.J. (2008).Evaluating and improving the quality of teacher collaboration: a field-tested framework for secondary school leaders. NASSP Bulletin, 92(2), 133-153. Gento, S. (1994). Participación en la Gestión Educativa. Madrid: Santillana. Greve, J. (2009). La inclusión educativa en Europa. Líneas de actuación de la Agencia Europea para el desarrollo de necesidades educativas especiales. En M.A. Casanova y M.S. Cabra de Luna (Coords.), Educación de Personas con Discapacidad: Presente y Futuro (p. 26-30). Madrid: Fundación ONCE. Huber, G.L. y Gürtler, L. (2013). Aquad 7. Manual del Programa para Analizar Datos Cualitativos. Tübingen: Ingeborg Huber Verlag. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (1994). Centros Educativos y Calidad de Enseñanza. Madrid: Secretaría de Estado de Educación. ONU (Organización de Naciones Unidas) (1948). Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos. Recuperado de http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/ABCAnnexessp.pdf. Perrenoud, Ph. (2013). Dix Nouvelles Compétences pour Enseigner (7e. edition). Issy-les Moulineaux: ESF. Pont, B., Nusche, D. & Hopkins, D. (Ed.)(2008). Improving School Leadership, Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership. París: OECD. Pont, B., Nusche, D. & Moorman, H. (2008).Improving School Leadership, Volume 1: Practice and Policy. París: OECD (publicado en español, en 2009, como Mejorar el Liderazgo Escolar, Volumen 1: Política y Práctica). Thorndike, R. (2003). Medición y Evaluación en Psicología y Educación. México: Trillas. Tuckman, B.W. (1978). Conducting Educational Research. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Janovich.
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