09 SES 07 B, Creativity Development, Cognitive Styles and Financial Literacy
Creativity is acknowledged as an essential facet of human personality. It refers to the capacity to produce novel ideas and to translate them purposively into an original product (Drevdahl, 1956). As the capacity has a social and a personal significance for learning (Hattie, 2009; Runco, 2004), it is stressed as an important educational goal in German-speaking literature (Bielenberg, 2006; Serve, 2000). Defined on the one hand as a procedural interaction of cognitive and personal components of individuals, and affected on the other hand by traits, motivation, environmental conditions as well as domain-specific skills, it can be considered as a multi-faceted concept (e. g. Cropley, 1991; Urban, 1993). Its complexity brings challenges concerning not only its definition, but consequently also in operationalization and assessment of creativity. Subsequently, there is still a research gap on the development of creativity and its conditional factors.
Theory and research that links creativity with personal determinants focuses on characteristics like unconventionality, perseverance, curiosity or personality traits. Research shows openness to experiences – one of the Big Five personality traits (Costa & McCrae, 1992) – to be one predictor for creativity: Several studies show a significant positive correlation between individual's openness and creative achievements (McCrae, 1987; Batey Furnham Safiullina, 2010; Furnham, Zhang & Chamorro-Premuzik, 2005, Furnham & Bachtiar, 2008).
These studies assess creativity in various ways. Both, studies using self-assessment tools and studies administering psychometric testing inventories are represented. The assessments in these studies differ additionally regarding the focus of creativity. Some studies estimate creativity as a general capacity; others focus on divergent thinking as one cognitive component of creativity. Regardless of the differences in assessment approaches, the studies report rather low, but constant positive correlations mainly for adults. They are furthermore commonly based on the assumption that a high degree in openness comes along with a high level of creativity. Thus, the studies rely empirically mainly on directional hypotheses. Reciprocal effects are rarely investigated. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies investigating whether the reported correlations manifest themselves also amongst adolescents or children. The presented study tackles these two aspects and analyzes the interdependencies of openness and creativity of fifth-graders in a longitudinal approach. Following Batey and colleagues (2010) the analyses are distinguished for two concepts of creativity: the generic creativity and divergent thinking as a cognitive sub-component of creativity.
Thus, in order to gain differential findings on the relationship of openness and creativity respectively divergent thinking in childhood, the following question will be answered:
How do openness for experiences and creativity influence each other when studied in children?
How do openness for experiences and divergent thinking influence each other when studied in children?
Barron, F. & Harrington, D. M. (1981). Creativity, Intelligence, and Personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 1–704. Batey, M., Furnham, A. & Safiullina, X. (2010). Intelligence, general knowledge and personality as predictors of creativity, Learning and individual differences, 20(5), 532–535. Berner, N., Theurer, C. & Lipowsky, F. (2012). Ist Kreativität messbar? Zur Erfassung kreativer Fähigkeiten im Forschungsprojekt PERLE [Can creativity be measured? On assessing creativity in the research project PERLE]. Erziehung & Unterricht, 162(5-6), 442–453. Bielenberg, I. (Ed.). (2006). Bildungsziel Kreativität: Kulturelles Lernen zwischen Kunst und Wissenschaft [Educational goal creativity: Cultural learning between the Arts and Science]. München: Kopaed. Costa, P. & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five factor inventory (NEO-FFI): Professional manual. Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Ressources. Cropley, A. J. (1991). Unterricht ohne Schablone: Wege zur Kreativität [Teaching without former plate: Ways towards creativity]. München: Ehrenwirth. Drevdahl, J. E. (1956). Factors of importance for creativity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 12, 21–26. Furnham, A., Zhang, J. & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2005). The relationship between psychometric and self-estimated intelligence, creativity, personality and academic achievement. Imagination, Cognition and Personality (25)2, 119–145. Furnham, A. & Bachtiar, V. (2008). Personality and intelligence as predictors of creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 613–617. Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge. McCrae, R. R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1258–1265. Muthén, L. K. & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2014). Mplus User ́s Guide. 7th Edition. [Computer software.]. Los Angeles, California: Muthén & Muthén. Runco, M. A. (2004). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 657–687. Serve, H. J. (2000). Fundamente (grund)schulpädagogischer Kreativitätsförderung [Foundations of fostering creativity in (elementary) school]. In H. J. Serve (Hrsg.), Kreativitätsförderung [Fostering creativity] (pp. 10–26). Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren. Urban, K. K. (1993). Neuere Aspekte in der Kreativitätsforschung [Recent aspects in creativity research]. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 40, 161–181.
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