07 SES 08 B, Minority Education
Processes of stigmatisation were described and researched relatively sufficiently. We know a lot about stigmatised persons and their self-concept (Crocker & Major, 1989), concept of internalised oppression (Derthick, 2016; Pyke 2010) as well as strategies, how to cope with stigma (Allport, 1954; Crocker & Major, 1989; Derthick, 2016; Pyke, 2010). We know also a lot about the persons, who stigmatizes. Stigmatization is usually rooted in a kind of own uncertainty and frustration (Jung, 1998; Perls, Hefferline, & Goodmann, 2004) and serves to enhance group cohesion (Douglas, 2014). Oppression is visible on many levels – structural, cultural as well as interpersonal (Link, Bruce & Phelan, 2001). But at the same time we know, that process of stigmatization is very often linked to visible difference (Allport, 1954; Girard, 1989; Samovar et al, 2013), which is not the case of Russian minority group in the Czech Republic.
Co-existence of Russians and Czechs is not new. Russian minority was quite important even before the World War II, and in present there is 34 710 people, the number constantly grows. From the perspective of co-existence another fact is important there are also people with Russian accent in spoken language from other countries like Ukraine (105 614 inhabitants) and Belarus (4 491 inhabitants) in the Czech Republic. We know from our field research that representatives of these minority groups face very often similar treatment as visible minorities, which is in their case linked to Russian accent in spoken language. It seems that in their case we can perceive link between process of stigmatization and principle of collective guilt. The perception of Russians is influenced by historical memory (occupants from 1968) therefore Czechs feel they have the right to stigmatize Russian speaking minority and do it unwittingly. The case is similar to the perception of Germans after the World War II.
Co-existence with Russian speaking minority group will be very important also in the future and at the same time political situation in Central and East European countries seems that we have to look for new ways how to define this co-existence. Our research would like to react on this situation and we would like to explore answers on research question what is the link between process of stigmatization and collective guilt? Which factors influence this link? How can we overcome these processes?
Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books. Boal, Augusto. The Theatre of the Oppressed. New York: Urizen Books, 1979. Republished by Routledge Press in New York/London in 1982. Boal, Augusto. Games for Actors and Non-Actors. New York: Routledge Press, 1992. Crocker, Jennifer & Major, Brenda (1989). Social Stigma and Self-Esteem: The Self-Protective Properties of Stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 4, 608 – 630. Derthick, E.J.R. David and Annie (2016). What is internalized oppression, and so what? In: David, E., J., R. (ed). Internalized Oppression: The Psychology of Marginalized Groups, Edition: 1, Springer Publishing Company, pp.1-30 downloaded at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260125784_What_is_internalized_oppression_and_so_what (20.1.2017) Douglasová Mary (2014). Čistota a nebezpečí. Analýza konceptu znečistění a tabu. Purity and Danger.: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollutions and Taboo. Praha: Malvern. Girard René, (1989) Scapegoat. Link, Bruce, G. & Phelan, Jo, C. (2001). Conceptualizing Stigma. Rev. Sociol., 27, 363 – 85. Perls, F. & Hefferline, R., F. & Goodmann, P. (2004). Gestalt terapie. Praha: Triton. Pyke, Karen, D. (2010). What is Internalized Racial Oppression and Why do not We Study it? Acknowlidging Racism´s Hidden Injuries. Sociological Perspetives, 53, 4. P. 551 – 572. ISSN 0731-1214, electronic ISSN 1533-8673. Samovar, L.,A.; Porter, R., E.; McDaniel, E., R. & Roy, C., S. (2013). Communication between cultures. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
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