10 SES 01 D, Programmes and Approaches: Outside and inside teacher education
Mentoring has a few benefits for teacher professional development, especially for beginning teachers. According to Hobson et al.’s review, 1) emotional and psychological support, 2) developing their teaching skills and classroom management skills, and 3) developing their ability to manage their time and amount of their work were showed as the benefits for beginning teachers. At the same time, they pointed out that successful mentoring depends upon the contextual support for mentoring, mentor selection and pairing, mentoring strategies, mentor preparation (Hobson et al., 2009). Their review appears to show that it is difficult to develop teaching skills and classroom management skills because in successful mentoring contextual support is important. That is thought why teacher’s skills in teaching has the nature of ‘knowing-how’, not ‘knowing-that’ by Ryle (1949). This means that there is the knowing-doing gap in teaching for schoolteachers, so that they cannot do something based on what they know in their teaching.
This problem appears to come from the nature of teacher education course. The effective teacher education course offers pedagogical theory and methods, followed by opportunities to apply theory and practice these methods in the field-based experiences, which means student teachers should understand about pedagogical theory and methods and then they should apply and practice those methods in their classroom teaching. If a mentor/supervisor gives immediate, corrective, and systematic feedback in the field, student teachers can transfer research-based methods into actual classroom practice (Scheeler et al.,2006). From immediate and corrective feedback to student teacher’s performance, wireless technology (bug-in-the-ear) has been used as a feedback tool (i.e. Scheeler et al. 2006; Ward et al.,1997).
With respect to this problem, management studies (Pfeffer et al., 1999) pointed out that some factors such as mentee’s belief, mentee’s own pet theory, fear and lack of self-confidence seem to prevent doing on his/her knowledge, and Leonard et al. (2005) claimed on-going intervention is most effective in conveying professional knowledge (knowing-how). If on-going intervention is effective for a mentee’s teaching skill development, it may have the potentiality of providing both knowing and doing to a particular teaching situation as against a mentee’s belief and so on.
Based on above mentioned studies, Asada (2016) developed the mentoring system through on-going cognitive intervention. This system consists of three phases. Phase I is to make the lesson plan (a kind of co-planning). Phase II is the on-going cognitive intervention during a mentee’s teaching (a kind of ‘stepping-in’). In Phase III a mentor and a mentee reflect on each scene through watching video clips and referring to the document of on-going comments (debriefing session). This system consists of ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ mentoring practice by Schwille (2008). The ‘inside’ mentoring includes ‘stepping-in’, ‘co-teaching’, and ‘demonstration teaching’, while the ‘outside’ mentoring includes ‘co-planning lessons’, ‘debriefing session’, ‘analyzing videotapes’ and so on. Although both mentoring practices are complementary for beginning teachers, most mentors tend to use ‘outside’ mentoring because they are afraid that ‘inside’ mentoring threaten their mentee’s authority, autonomy, and credibility in his/her class.
This study focuses on the relationship between ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ mentoring, especially, the role of co-planning as ‘outside’ practice in mentoring. This research purpose is to explore the role of co-planning in mentoring using on-going cognitive intervention. Therefore, the research question of this study is “Can the mentor give appropriate comments in on-going cognitive intervention (‘inside’ mentoring practice) if co-planning is insufficient?’. At the same time, how to guide/mentor in co-planning is explored to identify the relationship between ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ mentoring practice.
Asada, T. (2016) The Development of a Mentoring System through On-going Cognitive Intervention. Paper presented at ECER 2016 in Budapest Hobson, A. J. et al. (2009) Mentoring beginning teachers. Teaching & Teacher Education 25, 207-216 Leonard, D., Swap, W. (2005) Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and transfer Enduring Business Wisdom. Harvard Business School Press Pfeffer, J., Sutton, R. (1999) The Knowing-Doing Gap: How Smart Companies Turn Knowledge into Action. Harvard Business School Press Ryle, G. (1949) The Concept of Mind. Hutchinson’s University Library Scheeler, M. C. et al. (2006) Effects of Corrective Feedback Delivered via Wireless Technology on Preservice Teacher Performance and Student Behavior. Teacher Education and Special Education 29(1), 12-25 Ward, P. et al. (1997) Teacher Training: Effects of Directed Rehearsal on the Teaching Skills of Physical Education Majors. Journal of Behavioral Education 7(4), 505-517 Giebelhaus, C. R. (1994) The Medical Third Ear Device: A Student Teaching Supervision Alternative. Journal of Teacher Education 45(5), 365-373 Schwille, S. A. (2008) The professional practice of mentoring. American journal of education (1), 139-167
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