09 SES 07 A, Relating Homework Practices and Opportunities to Learn to Educational Achievement
Homework is an almost universal component of schooling with long historical roots. On a positive note, homework may be regarded as providing more and different opportunities to learn. Furthermore, bringing the school work into the homes could also be seen as a tool to engage parents and promote school-home collaboration. Indeed, homework may have compensatory effects favoring students with more difficulties (Epstein & Van Voorhis, 2001).
On the other hand, students have different levels of support and resources in their homes. Homework could therefore also be regarded as a source for unequal provision of opportunities to learn. In this sense, homework may be a source of inequity, specifically benefitting students from homes with high socio-economic status (SES) (Authors, 2016; Rønning, 2011). Equity is a goal in education and educational policy in most countries, as is for instance witnessed by the attention given to the study of equity in the large-scale international assessments (e.g. Caro, Lenkeit, & Kyriakides, 2016; Liu, Van Damme, Gielen, & Van Den Noortgate, 2015).
Homework is a controversial field, in which a large number of studies have generated conflicting findings; positive, negative, and insignificant effects of homework on achievement have been found (e.g. Author, 2013; Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006; Fan, Xu, Cai, He, & Fan, 2017; Trautwein, 2007). Dettmers et al. (2009) proposed that to disentangle the issues plaguing the field it is necessary to include possible confounding variables such as teaching quality. One such confounding teaching quality factor could be teachers’ feedback on students’ homework. If a student from a low SES home receives feedback on his/her mathematics homework from the teacher, where the teacher explains the mistakes he/she may have done and how to correct them, this may reduce the disadvantage this student has in terms of low SES. Another confounding variable may be parents support, as previous studies have found parents support to be closely linked to SES (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). High-SES students may have parents who support them with their homework, thus providing an advantage so that these students may benefit more from homework.
However, confounding variables is not the only challenge related to research on homework and equity. Methodology has proven to play a vital role in investigations of both fields (e.g. Author, 2013, 2016; Trautwein, 2007). A question arises as to whether equity and homework may in some cases be so interwoven, that controlling for SES is insufficient and common multi-level regression models don’t suffice. Inferences based on positive, and especially negative or insignificant relations between homework and achievement, may in such cases be erroneous. This could result from methodological issues and threats to causality. For instance, homework may have a differential effect on achievement for high-SES and low-SES students. Other issues include reverse causality (negative correlations between time spent on homework and achievement, because low achievers tend to spend more time on homework), and self-selection.
The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which relations between homework, achievement, parents’ support and teacher feedback are associated with equity in Norway and Sweden.
To shed light on the above issues, we ask the following research questions (RQ.) :
RQ.1. What is the relation between time spent on homework and mathematics achievement after controlling for SES and previous grades?
RQ.2. What is the differential effect of time spent on homework on mathematics achievement with respect to SES, parents’ support and teachers’ feedback respectively?
RQ.3. What is the relation between SES and time spent on homework, and is this association moderated by parents’ support and teacher feedback?
Bollen, K. A. (2014). Structural equations with latent variables: John Wiley & Sons. Caro, D. H., Lenkeit, J., & Kyriakides, L. (2016). Teaching strategies and differential effectiveness across learning contexts: Evidence from PISA 2012. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 49, 30-41. Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987–2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62. Dettmers, S., Trautwein, U., & Lüdtke, O. (2009). The relationship between homework time and achievement is not universal: Evidence from multilevel analyses in 40 countries. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 20(4), 375-405. Epstein, J. L., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2001). More than minutes: Teachers' roles in designing homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 181-193. Fan, H., Xu, J., Cai, Z., He, J., & Fan, X. (2017). Homework and students' achievement in math and science: A 30-year meta-analysis, 1986–2015. Educational Research Review, 20, 35-54. Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Hoy, A. W. (2006). Academic optimism of schools: A force for student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 425-446. Liu, H., Van Damme, J., Gielen, S., & Van Den Noortgate, W. (2015). School processes mediate school compositional effects: model specification and estimation. British Educational Research Journal, 41(3), 423-447. Rønning, M. (2011). Who benefits from homework assignments? Economics of Education Review, 30(1), 55-64. Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework–achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 372-388.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.