07 SES 08 B, Minority Education
The past two decades has seen significant inflows with respect to South-South migration. The rise in the number of international migrants has been partly attributed to the increasingly restrictive immigration policies being introduced amongst countries of the North and the growth in the economies of countries within the South. Issues of discrimination and problems associated with integration are consequences that the new centres of migration would have to deal with. Nationals have become hostile to migrants and have often used them as scapegoats for local problems. The challenge for migrants is more cumbersome as local populations even struggle living a comfortable life as socio economic conditions are relatively low. This is further made worse by the inadequacy or absence of proper welfare schemes in developing countries. Thus, issues about integrating migrants is given low priority (Gagnon and Khoudour-Castéras, 2012; Awumbila,Benneh, Teye and George Atiim, 2013).
More than half of the thirty (30) million children who might never enrol in school can be found in sub-Saharan Africa (UNESCO, 2015). The 2010 Education For All (EFA) global monitoring report identified marginalization as a major factor that will prevent most countries from achieving the universal primary education target with children of migrants most affected (UNESCO, 2010). Despite the concerted efforts on the international scene to increase educational opportunities for migrants, a third of all international migrants above age fifteen (15) have limited education. The Incheon declaration that set the agenda for post-2015 educational goals identify migrants as a vulnerable and marginalized group that need to be given equal opportunities in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) (UNESCO, 2015).
Migrants constitute 2.4% of Ghana’s population with migrants from Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) making up 1.7% (GSS, 2010). And with irregular migration forming a significant form of migration into Ghana, the numbers according to scholars are higher than those recorded. Works (Casely-Hayford et al., 2011; Gyimah & Vanderpuye, 2009; Pekeberg & Brandt 2012) on the marginalized in education have centred on children with disabilities and the poor with little or no attention been given to the children of migrants. With works on migration and education in Ghana (Hashim, 2005; Tamanja, 2014) largely limited to internal migrants, the research work focused on international migrants and their experience relating to education at the basic level in Ghana. the touches on their experience after gaining access into schools in Ghana. Does being a migrant matter during admissions? What are the experiences of migrants after moving past the admissions stage?
The work will seek to use the 4A’s, framework developed by Katarina Tomaševki as a tool in assessing the migrant child’s education in host countries. The framework approaches education of the migrant child from a rights based approach. Using the framework, the educational opportunities for the migrant child offered by the various frameworks and policies are measured in terms of its, accessibility, availability, acceptability and adaptability. The tool box approach will be adopted in using the framework as it allows for the selection of the indicators that are most relevant within the context of the work (Tomasevski 2004).
Reference Awumbila, M., Benneh, Y., Teye, J. K., & Atiim, G. (2013). Facilitation Of Intra-Regional Labour Migration In The ECOWAS Region. Legon: Centre for Migration Studies : University of Ghana. Casely‐ Hayford, L., Quansah, T., Tetteh, P., Adams, R., & Adams, I. (2011). Inclusive Education in Ghana: a look at policy, and practice in Northern Ghana. Accra: Voluntary Service Organisation (VSO, Ghana). Gagnon, J., & Khoudour-Castéras, D. (2012). South-South Migration in West Africa: Addressing the Challenge of Immigrant Integration. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). GSS, Ghana Statistical Service. 2013. The 2010 Population and Housing Census (PHC). Accra: Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). Gyimah, E. K., & Vanderpuye, I. (2009). Inclusive Education in Ghana: What are the levers for change? Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast. Hashim, I. 2005. Exploring the Linkages Between Children’s Independent Migration and Education: Evidence from Ghana’, Migration DRC Working. Paper WP-T12, Sussex Centre for Migration Research, Brighton: University of Sussex. http://www.migrationdrc.org/publications/working_papers/WP-T12.pdf. Pekeberg, & Brandt, I. M. (2012). Inclusive Education in Ghana An Analysis of Policies and the Practices in One Mainstream School and One Inclusive School in the Greater Accra Region. Oslo: University of Oslo. Tamanja, E. 2014. Child migration and educational progression in the Savannah regions of Ghana: Implications for planning and spatial development. Dortmund: Technical University of Dortmund. Tomasevski, K. (2004). Manual On Rights-Based Education: Global Human Rights Requirements Made Simple. Bankgok: UNESCO. UNESCO. 2015. EDUCATION FOR ALL 2000-2015: achievements and challenges. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO. 2010. Education for All Global Monitoring Report: reaching the marginalized. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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