ERG SES E 10, Didactics and Education
The paper outlines the characteristics, didactic principles and aims of a whole class string project in the field of musical education at primary school in South Tyrol. The project is based on the idea of a holistic, emotional and aesthetic access to learning, including different activities to develop the expression, musical, social and personal skills of the children. This project, named “KiMu – Kinder als Musiker” (children as musician) is composed of four main elements: singing, movement, drawing and playing a string instrument (violin or cello).
The focus of the research issue is on the relation between an instrumental oriented acquisition of musical knowledge, abilities and competencies and a lively and active dedication with music. Accordingly, a distinction is made between the technical approach of learning, which means a controlling mastery of a subject and the intrinsic exploration of music. In the context of this study, musical education is examined as a dynamic process between these two modes, relating to the theory of resonant and alienated world experiences (Beljan, 2017). Essential basis of this kind of understanding of musical education, and education in general constitutes the sociology of our relation to the world from Hartmut Rosa (2012, 2016) which will be transferred to musical contexts. His fundamental thesis is that our perception and reaction to world experiences can be described by means of three different categories: resonance, indifference and repulsion. Resonance represents a successful type of world experience, with an intrinsic type of world contact. On the contrary the relation to the world of the modes indifference and repulsion can be understood as alienation, because the contact between world and self is disturbed (Rosa & Endres, 2016).
Especially when learning to play such a challenging musical instrument at the age of 6 - 7, there is the risk that the children’s first music playing is concentrating on pure technical aspects. But it is the vivid way of making music, which affects people and makes musical education more personal and resonant. The basic intention of the musical project is, that children experience this intensive and personal access to musical activity right from the beginning, although the technical aspect of music learning should be acquired continuously, but not separated.
Two main questions guide the study:
- Firstly with regard to the quality of the teaching approach. Starting point is the description of the basic conditions of the research project and the description of structures, methods and contents of the teaching instruction. Question regarding the quality of teaching, with a view of resonance and alienation are:
- How do the children experience the confrontation with music, and how do they describe musical activities during the music lessons?
- Which dimensions of relation to world can be described as subjectively experienced by the children on a factual and social level?
- Secondly with regard to the effect of the teaching approach: Pursuing the line of argument of Hartmut Rosa, resonant relations in the classroom arise at the time when children and teacher develop a “vibrant” relation to the subject, which is characterized by intrinsic interest (Krapp, 1999) and self-efficacy expectations (Busch, 2013). Starting from this assumption, these two aspect are included and examined as indicators of resonant experiences.
Beljan, J. (2017). Schule als Resonanzraum und Entfremdungszone: Eine neue Perspektive auf Bildung. Weinheim, Basel: Beltz. Busch, T. (2013). Was, glaubst du kannst Du in Musik? Musikalische Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen und Ihre Entwicklung zu Beginn der Sekundarstufe I. Münster: LIT. Grosse, T. (2006). Instrumentaler Gruppenunterricht an Musikschulen: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel des Landes Niedersachsen. Augsburg: Wißner. Krapp, A. (1999). Intrinsische Lernmotivation und Interesse. Forschungsansätze und konzeptuelle Überlegungen. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 45(3), 387-406. Mollenhauer, K. (1988). Ist ästhetische Bildung möglich? Zeitschrift für Pädaogik, 34, 443-461. Rolle, C., & Wallbaum, C. (2011). Ästhetischer Streit im Musikunterricht: Didaktische und methodologische Überlegungen zu Unterrichtsgesprächen über Musik. In J. Kirschenmann, C. Richter, & K. Spinner (Eds.), Reden über Kunst: Fachdidaktisches Forschungssymposium in Literatur, Kunst und Musik (pp. 507-535). München: Kopaed. Rosa, H. (2012). Weltbeziehungen im Zeitalter der Beschleunigung: Umrisse einer neuen Gesellschaftskritik. Berlin: Suhrkamp. Rosa, H. (2016). Resonanz: Eine Soziologie der Weltbeziehungen. Berlin: Suhrkamp. Rosa, H., & Endres, W. (2016). Resonanzpädagogik : Wenn es im Klassenzimmer knistert. Weinheim, Basel: Beltz.
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