03 SES 09 A, Curriculum and Cross-cultural Efforts
This presentation will report on the results a 3-year research partnership between the University of Minnesota (UMN) in the U.S. and Avinashilingam University (AU) in Tamil Nadu, India. The goal of the project was to adapt and implement the Response to Intervention (RTI) framework developed in the U.S. to the Indian context. The project was funded by the Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative. Results in English and Tamil reading for students in two low performing model elementary schools will be presented to demonstrate the impact of RTI in India. The tension between introducing a system’s intervention developed in the U.S. and its adaptation and application in the Indian context will be discussed.
The Response to Intervention (RTI) framework was originally developed in the U.S. as a school-wide initiative designed to facilitate systems’ change in addressing the achievement gap between students from different socio-economic and cultural backgrounds (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). The RTI framework has all the necessary components to advance education as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), including increasing educational access & attainment, improving quality of education, and inspiring transformative learning in different education contexts (Didham & Ofei-Manu, 2013).
RTI is designed to provide a systematic process for schools to meet the needs of students who are struggling academically, but have yet to be formally diagnosed with disabilities. Implemented in such a fashion, it allows school personnel to determine which students are experiencing difficulty acquiring academic skills due to a poor fit between instruction and the child’s educational support needs vs. those who actually experience disability. As implemented in the U.S., RTI typically involves the coordinated work of a number of educational staff, including general education teachers, educational assistants, instructional specialists and in some cases special education support personnel. Multiple teachers at each grade level meet on an ongoing basis to analyze student’s response to instruction and problem-solve when academic growth is not occurring at expected rates. Although this approach has been shown to work well in resource rich settings, in many schools, additional supports to general education teachers are quit limited. These are often, however, those contexts in which RTI is needed most and likely to have the greatest impact.
This project has been modelled in part on an RTI demonstration project conducted in Minneapolis, U.S., with three RTI demonstration schools (Shapiro, Zigmond, Wallace, & Marston, 2011). It followed the basic principles of RTI, including assessment, tiered instruction, progress monitoring, and strengthening the core curriculum in reading (English and Tamil) and math. RTI in the model schools was implemented by research and project assistants trained by UMN faculty and staff under the supervision of AU faculty. The RTI approach had to be very systematically adapted to the Tamil Nadu public school system (government aided and corporation schools) to take into account limited resources and staffing.
The primary objective of this presentation is to explore ways in which the Response to Intervention (RTI) framework can be implemented in settings in which only limited resources are available. This project was the first of its kind in India. It introduced RTI as one of possible approaches to improving academic outcomes of struggling students in Indian public schools, thus addressing an important SDG to advance education for all. The presenters will address the project’s successes and challenges in the context of the study results.
Deno, S.L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52, 219-232. Didham, R.J., & Ofei-Manu, P. (2013). Advancing Education as a Goal for Sustainable Development. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) Issue Briefs on SDGs, No. 2. Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 93-99. Shapiro, E.S., Zigmond, N., Wallace, T., Marston, D. (eds.) (2011). Models for implementing Response to Intervention: Tools, outcomes, and implications. New York: The Guilford Press.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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