09 SES 04 C, Exploring the Role of Teachers in Assessment Practices
The measurement and evaluation of students' achievement status on a regular basis and with specific criteria can be done with large scale tests as well as in-class tests. Many countries regularly determine the level of success of their students through large-scale international scale tests. Through these tests, the level of achievement of the students and their progress are observed within a country (Acar Güvendir, 2013). Test results are also used by schools and teachers to assess students' knowledge, skills and abilities and at the same time to improve their level of education (Eurydice, 2009). On the other hand, test results are sometimes used in accordance with the above-mentioned purposes, sometimes by comparing students, teachers and schools with each other and pushing them into a competition, which can cause undesirable effects instead of contributing to education (Kumandaş, 2013). These examinations, which lead to important decisions about the individuals and affect all the stake holders in the education by their results is defined as "high-stakes testing" in the international field and defined as "High Risk Examination", (Kumandaş & Kutlu, 2010; Kumandaş, 2013) "Highly Delayed Examination" (Başaran, 2005) or "Fate Examination" (Baştürk, 2005) in the Turkish context.
There are studies that focus on the positive and negative consequences of the high stake testing on students and school administrators (Berger, 2006; David, 2011; Gunn, Al-Bataineh ve El-Rub,2016; Madaus, West, Harmon, Loma, & Viator, 1992; Marchant & Paulson; 2005; Paris, 2000; Rebora, 2012; Shepard and Dougherty, 1991). There literature also includes studies in which the teachers influence the teaching methods and techniques and reach the conclusion that the training program pushes the content to the test-focused narrowing. There exists a questionnaire (Lantry, Brockmeier, Green, Archibald, Pate, & Leech, 2014) and a scale (Pearson, Nichols, Zimmerman, & Lombardo, 2006) developed to determine the impact of these tests on teachers on the international field. However, when the concept of culture is considered, some of the materials in these studies will not work in the Turkish culture. For this reason, it is necessary to use a tool suitable for the Turkish culture in order to see the instructional and affective influences of the high stake testing on teachers. Also, there is no study on whether the instructional and affective influences of the high stake testing on teachers differ according to demographic characteristics of the teachers. For these reasons, the purpose of the study is to determine the instructional and affective influences of the high stake testing on the teachers according to seniority, branch, and gender.
Acar Güvendir, M. (2013). Öğrenci başarılarının belirlenmesi sınavında türkçe dersi başarısının öğrenci ve okul özellikleri ile ilişkisinin hiyerarşik lineer model ile analizi, Published Dissertation, Ankara Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara. Gunn, J., Al-Bataineh, A. & Abu Al-Rub, M. (2016). Teachers’ perceptions of high-stakes testing. International Journal of Teaching and Education, Vol. IV(2), pp. 49-62., 10.20472/TE.2016.4.2.003 Başaran, S. (2005). Diğer ülkelerde lise bitirme sınavları ve türk eğitim sistemi için lise bitirme sınavı önerisi. Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Eğitimi Araştırma ve Geliştirme Dairesi Başkanlığı. Baştürk, R. (2005). Öğrenci seçme sınavı (ÖSS) ve üniversite mezuniyet not ortalamasının KPSS başarısını yordama geçerliliği. XIV. Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Denizli, Pamukkale Üniversitesi. Berger, A. (2006). High-stakes testing and its relationship to stress between rural and urban elementary school teachers. Dissertation Abstracts International, (UMI No. 3237580). David, J. L. (2011). High-stakes testing narrows the curriculum. Educational Leadership, 68(6), 78-80. Eurydice (2009). National testing of pupils in Europe: Objectives, organization and use of results (Report). Kumandaş & Kutlu (2010). High Stakes Testing: Does Secondary Education Examination Involve Any Risks? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. (9). 758-764. Kumandaş, H. (2013). Yükseköğretime öğrenci seçmede ve yerleştirmede kullanılan sınavların ortaöğretime devam eden öğrencilerin okul başarıları üzerinde oluşturduğu risk faktörleri, Published Dissertation, Ankara Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara. Lantry L. Brockmeier, L.L., Green, R.B., Archibald, J.G., Pate, J.L. & Leech, D.W. (2014). Validation of the teacher’s high stakes testing survey, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(3), 31-40. Madaus, G., West, M., Harmon, M., Lomax, R. & Viator, K. (1992). The influence of testing on teaching math and science in grades 4-12. Boston: Center for the Study of Testing, Evaluation, and Educational Policy, Boston College. Marchant, G. J. & Paulson, S. E. (2005). The effect of high school graduation exams on SAT scores (Pres Edit). Retrived from http://www. Bsu.edu/web-gmarchant/papers/pressedit.pdf. Pearson, C., Nichols, J., Zimmerman, S. & Lombardo, C. (2006). Initial construct validation of the teacher high stakes testing scale, The Journal of Research in Education, 16, (2), 21-35. Rebora, A. (2012). Teachers place little value on standardized testing. Education Week, 31(26), 14-14. Shepard, L.A., & Dougherty, K. (1991, April). Effects of high-stakes testing on instruction. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991) and the National Council on Measurement in Education (Chicago, IL, April 4-6, 1991).
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