10 SES 07 E, Professional Knowledge & Teacher Identity: Self-efficacy
An important aim of research in the field of teacher education is to examine factors that contribute to teacher professionalization, because in the long term, teachers’ expertise is related to students’ performance level in school (cf. Darling-Hammond, 2000a).
One model of teacher expertise proposes the following components as important factors for the development of expertise: beliefs (e.g. perceived self-efficacy with regard to teaching), motivational orientations (e.g. career choice motivation), self-regulation and professional knowledge (e.g. general pedagogical knowledge) (Baumert & Kunter, 2006).
In general, perceived self-efficacy is considered to have an impact on motivational processes and performance. The most important and most effective source for the development of self-efficacy is to master challenges (Bandura, 1997). In the context of teaching, self-efficacy is associated with more enthusiasm and better preparation, as well as more effective implementation of instruction (Baumert & Kunter, 2006). Another construct that has a certain overlap with self-efficacy is the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), in which three intrinsic needs are assumed: 1) The need for competence “leads people to seek and conquer challenges that are optimal for their capacities” (Deci & Ryan, 1985, p.28). Gaining mastery of tasks is very closely connected to a feeling of self-efficacy because perceived self-efficacy is based on experiences of previous success or failure (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1999); 2) The need for autonomy relates to the need to be in control of one’s own actions, which means to be self-initiating and self-regulating; 3) Psychological relatedness describes the need to establish meaningful connections with others and to experience a sense of belonging.
The fulfillment of these needs promotes intrinsic motivation and additionally can lead to better learning outcomes (Deci & Ryan, 1985). A source for those experiences can be opportunities to learn, such as educational coursework, internships or pedagogical experience (e.g. giving private lessons) outside university. They are also considered to be critical determinants for teacher professionalization (König & Seifert, 2012).
In a study conducted by Holzberger and colleagues, a high perceived self-efficacy and the fulfillment of intrinsic needs predict a more professional behavior of teachers (Holzberger, Philipp & Kunter, 2014). Darling-Hammond gives an overview of several studies in which relations between teacher education and general pedagogical and psychological knowledge have been found (cf. Darling-Hammond, 2000b). Furthermore, student teachers who have pedagogical experience outside teacher training are more intrinsically motivated, more likely to complete teacher training and they stay in the teaching profession at higher rates (Mayr, 2009). Regarding effects of career choice motivations, Blüthmann and collegues (2011) summarize different studies that report positive relations between intrinsic career choice motivation (esp. pedagogical interest) and the acquisition of knowledge, as well as the cognitive processing depth in initial teacher education (Blüthmann, Ophardt, Thiel, & Felsberger, 2011).
The question is: “what kinds of learning opportunities promote self-efficacy and contribute to more sophisticated general pedagogical knowledge as well as greater intrinsic motivation?” To answer this question, this paper focuses on the relationships between opportunities to learn (OTL), student teachers’ perceived self-efficacy, their career choice motivation, their professional vision of lessons and their general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) in the domain of teaching.
Based on theoretical assumptions and empirical findings, the following research questions are derived: 1) “Are educational coursework, internships at university and giving private lessons outside university appropriate predictors of a) general pedagogical knowledge, b) professional vision of lesson design, c) intrinsic career choice motivation and d) self-efficacy with regard to teaching?” 2) “Does self-efficacy function as a mediator between opportunities to learn and general pedagogical knowledge, professional vision as well as career choice motivation?”
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Baumert, J., & Kunter, M. (2006). Stichwort: Professionelle Kompetenz von Lehrkräften. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 9(4), 469–520. Blömeke, S. (Ed.). (2010). TEDS-M 2008: Professionelle Kompetenz und Lerngelegenheiten angehender Mathematiklehrkräfte für die Sekundarstufe I im internationalen Vergleich. Münster [u.a.]: Waxmann. Blüthmann, I., Ophardt, D., Thiel, F., & Felsberger, G. (2011). Wissenserwerb zum Thema Klassenmanagement im Lehramtsstudium: Individuelle und studienbezogene Einflussfaktoren. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 39(4), 290–309. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000a). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA), 8(1), 1–44. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000b). How Teacher Education Matters. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3), 166–173. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Perspectives in social psychology. New York: Plenum. Holzberger, D., Philipp, A., & Kunter, M. (2014). Predicting teachers’ instructional behaviors: The interplay between self-efficacy and intrinsic needs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(2) 100-111. König, J., & Seifert, A. (Eds.). (2012). Lehramtsstudierende erwerben pädagogisches Professionswissen: Ergebnisse der Längsschnittstudie LEK zur Wirksamkeit der erziehungswissenschaftlichen Lehrerausbildung. Münster: Waxmann. Mayr, J. (2009). Studien- und Berufswahlmotive von Lehrpersonen. Wie sie entstehen, wie sie sich verändern und was sie bewirken. Kommentierte Folien zum Referat bei der 5. Tagung der Sektion „Empirische Bildungsforschung" der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft in Landau, 24. März 2009 Pohlmann, B., & Möller, J. (2010). Fragebogen zur Erfassung der Motivation für die Wahl des Lehramtsstudiums (FEMOLA)1. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 24(1), 73–84. Schmitz, G. S., & Schwarzer, R. (2000). Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung von Lehrern: Längsschnittbefunde mit einem neuen Instrument. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 14(1). Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1999). Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen: Dokumentation der psychometrischen Verfahren im Rahmen der Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des Modellversuchs Selbstwirksame Schulen. Berlin: R. Schwarzer.
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