10 SES 06 D, Engaging with Professional Standards and Educational Goals
Student teachers tend to enter teacher education with educational ideals. These ideals shape their educational goals and motivations for training as a teacher. In policy and research in the educational field in various European countries, the main focus is on the outcomes and technical aspects of teaching. However, education is intended not only to provide young people with access to qualifications, but also to be conducive to their personal development and a good society (Biesta, 2010).
This study contributes to insight into the priorities of student teachers: do they value qualifications or goals related to personal autonomy and society more? And what are the grounds for their choice to become a teacher? Is their choice based on desire to support young people or to teach a certain subject? The objective of this study is to gain insight into the goals and motivations of student teachers, which helps teacher trainers to develop meaningful education and informs them about the values of teachers of the future. This study is part of a larger research project which focuses on the content and formation of the educational ideals of student teachers.
The first framework in this study consists of value-related educational goals, developed by Veugelers and Schuitema (2010) and goals related to qualification, developed by Denessen, Michels, and Felling (2000) and Van Veen, Sleegers, Bergen, and Klaassen (2001). Veugelers and Schuitema (2010) distinguish four factors of value-related educational goals: ‘discipline and adaptation’, ‘autonomy’, ‘social commitment’ and ‘democratic attitude focused on social justice’. This scale is used by Leenders, Veugelers, and De Kat (2008). Qualification concerns both the ‘future careers of learners’ (Denessen et al., 2000) and ‘subject matter knowledge’ (Van Veen et al., 2001).
The second framework used in this research is based on the Factors Influencing Teaching theory (FIT-Choice theory) developed by Watt and Richardson (2007). On the basis of this theory they constructed the FIT-Choice Scale, which consists of factors that influence the choice for the teaching profession, such as ‘intrinsic values’, ‘personal utility values’ and ‘social utility values’. As the FIT-Choice scale lacks the factor subject matter and literature (Roness, 2011; Thomson, Turner, & Nietfeld, 2012) shows that subject-matter motivators are highly valued by student teachers and newly qualified teachers in secondary education, the factor ‘subject matter’ developed by Roness (2011) and Thomson et al. (2012) was added.
The FIT-Choice scale was developed in Australia and used in various European countries, namely Croatia (Jugović, Marušić, Pavin Ivanec, & Vizek Vidović, 2012), Germany (König & Rothland, 2012; Watt et al., 2012), Switzerland (Berger & D’Ascoli, 2012) and Norway (Watt et al., 2012). The FIT-Choice scale has already been used in the Netherlands by Fokkens-Bruinsma and Canrinus (2012a, 2012b, 2014), but their studies focus only on students training to become first-degree teachers – who are qualified to teach young people in all secondary educational tracks of the Dutch school system – and students training to become primary teachers. This research concentrates on students training to become second-degree student teachers – who are qualified to teach young people in all four years of the lower secondary educational tracks and the first three years of the higher secondary educational tracks. The results of this research will be compared with the results of the research conducted in the Netherlands and other European countries.
What are the educational goals and motivations for training as a teacher of first-year and fourth-year student teachers?
Berger, J.-L., & D’Ascoli, Y. (2012). Motivations to Become Vocational Education and Training Educators: A Person-Oriented Approach. Vocations and Learning, 5(3), 225-249. Biesta, G. J. (2010). Good education in an age of measurement: ethics, politics and democracy. Boulder: Pardigm Publishers. Denessen, E., Michels, C., & Felling, A. (2000). Opvattingen over onderwijs: een onderzoek naar de validiteit en betrouwbaarheid van een meetinstrument. Pedagogische Studiën, 77, 193-205. Fokkens-Bruinsma, M., & Canrinus, E. T. (2012a). Adaptive and maladaptive motives for becoming a teacher. Journal of Education for Teaching, 38(1), 3-19. Fokkens-Bruinsma, M., & Canrinus, E. T. (2012b). The Factors Influencing Teaching (FIT)-Choice scale in a Dutch teacher education program. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 249-269. Fokkens-Bruinsma, M., & Canrinus, E. T. (2014). Motivation for becoming a teacher and engagement with the profession: Evidence from different contexts. International Journal of Educational Research, 65, 65-74. Jugović, I., Marušić, I., Pavin Ivanec, T., & Vizek Vidović, V. (2012). Motivation and personality of preservice teachers in Croatia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 271-287. König, J., & Rothland, M. (2012). Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: effects on general pedagogical knowledge during initial teacher education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 289-315. Leenders, H., Veugelers, W., & De Kat, E. (2008). Teachers' views on citizenship education in secondary education in The Netherlands. Cambridge Journal of Education, 38(2), 155-170. Roness, D. (2011). Still motivated? The motivation for teaching during the second year in the profession. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(3), 628-638. Thomson, M. M., Turner, J. E., & Nietfeld, J. L. (2012). A typological approach to investigate the teaching career decision: Motivations and beliefs about teaching of prospective teacher candidates. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(3), 324-335. Van Veen, K., Sleegers, P., Bergen, T., & Klaassen, C. (2001). Professional orientations of secondary school teachers towards their work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2), 175-194. Veugelers, W., & Schuitema, J. (2010). Grenzen aan de pedagogische taak van de docent. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam. Watt, H. M. G., & Richardson, P. W. (2007). Motivational Factors Influencing Teaching as a Career Choice: Development and Validation of the FIT-Choice Scale. Journal of Experimental Education, 75(3), 167-202. Watt, H. M. G., Richardson, P. W., Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Beyer, B., Trautwein, U., & Baumert, J. (2012). Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: An international comparison using the FIT-Choice scale. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 791-805.
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