Despite constant efforts amongst stakeholders, numbers of women in top positions continue to remain small. Particularly in the higher education sector (e.g. European Commission, 2009), we see that at higher organizational levels the percentage of women decreases, which is what we call the leaking pipeline. In the Netherlands, the percentage of female full professors has risen very slowly up to 18% in 2016 (LNVH, 2016), but this is still one of the lowest percentages in Europe. Within the Netherlands, the percentages differ between 26 (Open University) and 7,6% (Wageningen). This university is amongst the higher group with about 18-20 % in 2015. The most important reasons for these disappointing results lie in the variety of factors determining further career steps for women. We distinguish here between 1) structural and institutional factors such as the power relations and university governance, and 2) the lack of information and knowledge with regard to how these factors influence female careers in academia. (Teelken & Deem, 2013).
We have decided to focus on the transfer between the associate to full professor level as this remains the hardest barrier to cross amongst all the scientific disciplines, with a glass ceiling index of 1.5 (meaning that the percentage of female associate professors is 1,5 times higher then the percentage of female full professor). A glass ceiling index higher than 1 implies a stagnating transfer. We consider the glass ceiling here as the invisible barriers that hinder the transfer of women to higher positions (e.g. Morrison, et al., 1987).
Bleijenbergh, I. L, van Engen, M.L., Schulte, L., & Blonk, E. (2010). Femaleen naar de top. Tijdschrift voor HRM, 4. Eisinga, R., & P. Scheepers. (1989). Etnocentrisme in Nederland, theoretische en empirische modellen, Nijmegen, Instituut voor Toegepaste Sociale Wetenschappen. European Commission. (2009). She figures 2009, Statistics and Indicators on gender equality in Science. Accessed September 10, 2012. http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/she_figures_2009_en.pdf. European Commission. (2009). Mapping the Maze: Getting More Women to the Top in Research. Equal Opportunities International 28, (1), 12-113. Fiske, S. T. (2000). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination at the seam between the centuries: Evolution, culture, mind, and brain. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(3), 299-322. Fiske, S. T., & Stevens, L. E. (1993). What’s so special about sex? Gender stereotyping and discrimination. In S. Oskamp & M. Costanzo (Eds.), Gender issues in contemporary society (173–196). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Kaatz, A., Gutierrez, B., & Carnes, M. (2014). Threats to objectivity in peer review: the case of gender. Trends in pharmacological sciences, 35(8), 371-373. Levinson, J. D., & Young, D. (2010). Implicit Gender Bias in the Legal Profession: An Empirical Study. Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 18(1). LNVH (2016) Monitor Femaleelijke hoogleraren, Publication by the LNVH (Dutch national network of female full professors). Christine Teelken & Rosemary Deem (2013) All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal Than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective. Comparative Education, 49, 4, 520-535. Van den Brink, M. C. L., & Brouns, M. L. M. (2006). Gender & excellence: een landelijk onderzoek naar benoemingsprocedures van hoogleraren. Den Haag: OCW. Van Engen, M. L., Bleijenbergh, I. L., & Paauwe, J. (2008). Femaleen in hogere wetenschappelijke posities aan de Universiteit van Tilburg: Processen van instroom, doorstroom en uitstroom nader bekeken.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
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