ERG SES C 03, Teachers' Education
Background of the study
Although the “team teaching” concept as a form of collaborative teaching has been long implemented in education, many still consider it as “new” methodology. Team teaching had its origins in the America of the mid-1950s. So far no attempt has been made to define exactly what is meant by expression “team teaching” in practical terms. What has been established, though, is the impossibility of definition other than in the most general sort of way. It was initially introduced as a form of organization where groups of teachers work collaboratively and use different aids to teach groups of students (Warwick, 1971). Since interpretation team teaching has faced different changes and at the present time, it is synonymous with co-teaching or collaborative teaching.
The function of team teaching might seem as simple as bringing two teachers to plan and teach in the same class and with the same students, however, the collaboration between team members is complicated phenomena yet. Team teaching is perceived as an approach to minimize teachers’ isolation and to promote independent from teacher training professional growth (McCracken and Sekicky, 1998; Murata, 1997) and also to improve students learning outcomes (Murata, 1998; Oldfather & Thomas, 1998;).
Different forms of teaching can play a role of catalyst for teacher’s professional development and school improvement (McLaughlin, 1993; Welch, 1998) because teachers participate in collaborative works and ongoing dialogues not only about students’ learning but also the whole school’s life. From the social constructivist view, learning takes place in social environments rather than in isolation. Therefore, learning from each other is important and may serve for teachers as a strategic approach for ongoing development in their career.
Team teaching, in the countries where English is native language, is implemented in cross-curricular subjects to combine language and content instruction (Crandall, 1998; Snow et al, 1989), and also to integrate ESL and EFL learners into cuІture and maіnstream cІassroom (Becker, 2001; Coltrane, 2002; Creese, 2005; de Jong, 1996). But, in foreign language context, team teaching is considered as the participation of teachers with different linguistic, educational and cultural backgrounds. In comparison to traditional classroom where mainly works a local teacher and in most cases alone, team teaching better responds to students’ needs. It provides more opportunities to practice target language, to collaborate with other students and teachers with different backgrounds which, as a result, can stimulate them to learn better, and emerges positive attitude toward the target language (Carless, 2004, 2006; Tajino & Tajino, 2000;).
In the last two decades, several East Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong-Kong started implementing team teaching into their educational policy in response to the impact of English as a global language (Nunan, 2003). But, Kazakhstan has the shortest history (since 2008) of practising team teaching. As a part of the trilingual policy of the government, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS) were chosen to be an experimental platform for this project. Similar to other East Asian countries mentioned above, the policy in Kazakhstan is meant to enhance students’ English proficiency and facilitate professional development of local teachers. However, team teaching is not integrated into the Education System of Kazakhstan and it is practised only in NIS schools.
- What are challenges in team teaching between foreign and local teachers in Kazakhstan?
- What are positive or successful models of team teaching in Kazakhstan?
- What is the role of school administration in facilitating team teaching?
- How does team teaching affect students’ learning outcomes?
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