23 SES 06 A, Curriculum Policy Reforms and Their Implications (Part 2)
Paper Session continued from 23 SES 05 A, to be continued in 23 SES 07 A
What the national and the international evaluation reports emphasize about the schools´ evaluation system in Portugal?
- To analyse data from national and international evaluation reports;
- To understand how the national and the international reports create impact on the Portuguese schools´ evaluation system.
In the globalization context evaluation, has been recognized as a key tool in education policy reform. By borrowing and lending policies (Steiner-Khamsi, 2012) there is a mindset that implies to respond to the market logic (McNamara & O’Hara, 2009; Smith, 2014). Transnational institutions such as the United Nations (UN), the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), the European Union (EU) and other variety of “border-crossing institutions that exert enormous influence on States and citizens around the globe” (Sperling, 2009, p.2) are increasing uniformity in the educational policies (Schwandt, 2009) reflecting it on the evaluation politics. Different European national models for the Schools’ External Evaluation (SEE) aroused based on international evaluation systems (European Commission, EACEA, Eurydice, 2015). Nowadays there are thirty-one education systems in Europe that put their schools under the spotlight through external and internal evaluations, a number which still is increasing (Puhl & Crosier, 2015).
In Portugal, the Law No. 31/2002 of December the 20th defined the Portuguese system of SEE which defends that this process is a formative instrument that evaluates the quality of the schools. The school evaluation process is assured by the Portuguese Inspectorate of Education and Science (IGEC) in collaboration with the Universities and it has, already, two evaluation cycles.
The first Portuguese cycle of SEE (2006-2011) occurred normally and only in some public schools. As the result was considered positive, the process was extended to all national public schools in the second cycle (2012-2017), but with some changes based on the proposals made by the Portuguese Education Council (CNE) and implemented by Inspection, as occurs in other European countries (Ehren & Shakleton, 2016).
The domains evaluated in the scope of the SEE process in the first cycle were five: i) results; ii) educational service performance; iii) organization and school management; iv) leadership and the capacity for self-regulation; v) school improvement. There was also a rating scale with four grades: very good; good; sufficient; insufficient. From the first to the second cycle changes were made and two of them were the adjustment from five to three evaluation domains (removing the school improvement domain and combining the leadership domain and the management domain in one) and switch a four-grade rating scale to a five-grade scale, including the “excellent” classification.
The results of SEE have been published by national and international reports from different organizations. In Portugal, the IGEC has published three reports after the beginning of the SEE second cycle (IGEC, 2013; IGEC, 2015; IGEC, 2016). At the international level, the OECD has produced reports about evaluation (Santiago, et al., 2012; OECD, 2013), general overviews about the education field and in which evaluation it is focused (OECD, 2012; 2015a; OECD, 2016) and an outlook about education policy (OECD, 2015b). The Eurydice makes an overview about evaluation in Europe (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2015).
These national and transnational recommendations are globally recognized and, consequently, create an impact on international and national structural policies, namely on the schools’ external evaluation system.
Ball, S. (2012). Global Education Inc. New policy networks and the neoliberalism imaginary. New York: Routledge. Bardin, L. (2013). Análise de Conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70. Comissão Europeia/EACEA/Eurydice (2015). Garantia da Qualidade na Educação: Políticas e Abordagens à Avaliação das Escolas na Europa. Relatório Eurydice. Luxemburgo: Serviço de Publicações da União Europeia. Ehren, M. & Shakleton, N. (2016). Mechanisms of Change in Dutch Inspected Schools: Comparing Schools in Different Inspection Treatments. British Journal of Educational Studies, 64 (2), 185-213. DOI: 10.1080/00071005.2015.1019413 Hsieh, H. & Shannon, S. (2005). Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15 (9), 1277-1288. DOI: 10.1177/1049732305276687 IGEC (2013). Avaliação Externa das Escolas 2011-2012 — Relatório. Lisboa: Inspeção-Geral da Educação e Ciência. IGEC (2015). Avaliação Externa das Escolas 2012-2013 — Relatório. Lisboa: Inspeção-Geral da Educação e Ciência. IGEC (2016). Avaliação Externa das Escolas 2013-2014 — Relatório. Lisboa: Inspeção-Geral da Educação e Ciência. Krippendorff, K. (1990). Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology. Newbury Park: The Sage. McNamara, G. & O’Hara, J. (2009). The importance of self-evaluation in the changing landscape of education policy. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 34, 173-179. DOI:10.1016/j.stueduc.2008.08.001 Morgan, D. (1993). Qualitative content analysis: A guide to paths not taken. Qualitative Health Research,3, 112-121 OECD (2012). Education Today 2013: The OECD Perspective. OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/edu_today-2013-en OECD (2013). Synergies for Better Learning: An international perspective on evaluation and assessment. OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/9789264190658-en OECD (2015a). Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/eag-2015-en OECD (2015b). Education Policy Outlook 2015: Making reforms happen. OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/9789264225442-en OECD (2016). Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.187/eag-2016-en Santiago, P. et al. (2012). OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Portugal 2012, OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/9789264117020-en Schwandt, T. (2009) Globalizing influences on the western evaluation imaginary. In K. Ryan & J. Cousins (Ed.), The Sage International Handbook of Educational Evaluation (pp. 19-36). London: Sage. Smith, D. (2014). Wisdom responses to globalization. In W. Pinar (Ed.), International handbook of curriculum research (2nd ed.) (pp. 45-59). New York: Routledge. Sperling, V. (2009). Altered states: the globalization of accountability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2012). Understanding policy borrowing and lending. Building comparative policy studies. In G. Steiner-Khamsi & F. Waldow (Eds.), World yearbook of education 2012. Policy borrowing and lending in education (pp. 5-17). London: Routledge.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
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Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
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Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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