23 SES 12D, Minority Education
As part of the EU Framework for Roma Integration, Sweden has developed a Strategy that is an example of both explicit and exclusive targeting of the minority. In this paper we describe briefly the background and evolution of the Strategy but also the tensions it has revealed around issues of Roma representation and the framing of equality. We draw on two types of empirical data: Documentary materials produced around the Strategy by official sources and Roma organisations. These include (a) Government Communications and Reports on the Roma Inclusion Strategy, and EU documents related to the Swedish National Roma Integration Strategy; (b) Responses to the government documents by Roma organisations. Second, we have interviewed the former minister for integration (Erik Ullenhag), a Roma activist, and collected materials, and discussion notes from a policy conference “Romsk Inkludering”. We have framed our analysis against critical reviews of minority policies in social and education fields (Hübinette, 2016; Liedholm & Lindberg, 2020; McGarry, 2012; Montesino & Ohlsson Alfakir, 2015; Rodell-Olgaç, 2013), and EU and Swedish policies that address Roma minority issues (European Commission, 2016; Kommissionen mot antiziganism, 2015; Regeringskansliet, 2014). Even though the Strategy has engaged imaginatively with the politics of inclusion for Roma, it has not provided answers to two fundamental challenges: those posed by cultural recognition dilemmas prevalent in education; and, those regarding the practical issues around policy implementation. In an ethnically-blind policy environment, designing explicit policies for the heterogeneous groups of Roma in Swedish schools has produced mixed responses from the Roma and non-Roma organisations and policy actors. Challenges that the Strategy is facing relate to (a) the incorporation of Roma ‘voices’ into the actors represented in municipal and education institutions; (c) the heterogeneity of Roma communities (in terms of languages, religious affiliations, diversity of cultural identities); (c) majority views represented in local government and education institutions about an ethnicity-blind perspective to ‘education for all’.
European Commission. (2016). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, and the Committee of the Regions (27.06.2016. COM(2016) 424). Brussels: Assessing the Implementation of the EU Framework for NRIS and the Council Recommendation on Effective Roma Integration Measures in the Member States 2016. Hübinette, T. (2016). Words that wound: Swedish whiteness and the inability to accommodate minority experiences. In K. Loftsdóttir & L. Jensen (Eds.), Whiteness and postcolonialism in the Nordic region: Exceptionalism, migrant others and national identities (pp. 43–55). Abington: Routledge. Kommissionen mot antiziganism. (2015). First interim report. Stockholm. Liedholm, M., & Lindberg, G. (2010). Romska barn i skolor. En undersökning på uppdrag av Delegationen för romska frågor Lund. McGarry, A. (2012). The dilemma of the European Union’s Roma policy: Commentary. Critical Social Policy, 32(1), 126–136. doi:10.1177/0261018311425201. Montesino, N., & Ohlsson Alfakir, I. (2015). The prolonged inclusion of Roma groups in Swedish society. SocialInclusion, 3(5), 126–136. doi:10.17645/si.v3i5.247. Regeringskansliet. (2014). Education and Training 2020 National Report—Sweden. Regeringskansliet, Ministry of Education and Research, Memorandum. Rodell-Olgaç, C. (2013). Education of Roma in Sweden. In S. Hornberg & C. Brüggeman (Eds.), Die bildungssituation von Roma in Europa (pp. 205–217). Münster: Waxmann Verlag.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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