11 SES 09 A, Inclusion and Quality Assurance
Discourses concerning Inclusion within the educational Sciences formulate different challenges and controversial issues over the past 20 years (Goodin 1996, Vobruba 2000). In School Development, the discussion is in particular about transformation difficulties and structural obstacles. Puhr & Geldner (2017) stated that the principle of equal opportunities in education and competence-oriented teaching and learning contains ambivalent demands that provoke chances for participation as well as exclusion as a side effect in the everyday school-life. With this, they resume to Stichweh (2009) who describes the ‘exclusive inclusion effect’ and points out that in schools with inclusive lessons exclusion is often an accompanying factor at the level of organization management. On basis of school development processes, we show that the claim of doing equitable assessment to all pupils requires temporary exclusionary actions to drive change management.
This phenomenon of inherent exclusion is very prominent especially within the German education system. Whereas the school system in Italy and above all in South Tyrol gets special praise in educational journals as a successful example of Inclusion. The subjective right to full development of every human potential is not limited by barriers which can be removed by the state, is a valid principle since 1976. Individual support of all pupils -with or without impairment-is pretended legally as a task of all teaching staff, without stressing Inclusion as a special topic.
To fulfill integration the federal state governance of the autonomous province of Bolzano permits school attempts, paper based or personal support and adaptable arrangement of instructing and teaching activities. In elementary and secondary schools, grades are substituted by a 5-stage assessment sheet. Every school has the didactical sovereignty to write individual curricula or rather learning-plans and record pupil’s formative and aummative achievements within factual or specialized knowledge, cognitive or practical skills as well as responsibility and autonomy of work. Moreover, schools have the autonomy to decide to inform the parents about their children’s achievements using a digital class register. The aim of a competence-oriented teaching and grading is to concentrate upon the learner’s strengths and not to focus on his mistakes. This thinking and acting is obliged primarily to the culture of support instead of selection.
Since 2016 the Free University of Bolzano, Faculty of Education supports and evaluates introduction and development of competence-oriented assessment scientifically. Partially structured interviews have already been conducted with five schools in order to determine their special experiences in dealing with innovation of the new school culture and teaching culture. Further six schools are
interested in the feedback from a scientific educational point of view and an organizational pedagogy perspective. The data documentation shows similar and varying interests, values, convictions and expectations. Especially a closer look at the discursive constructed interview parts, can serve schools as a self-review of processing and identifying issues for development. Referring to Booth (2011) and his ‘Index for Inclusion’, the transcriptions were analyzed by looking for including and excluding factors in the following three dimensions:
A: creating cultures: Creation of a secure, respectful, cooperative and stimulating community, developing and sharing values with all new staff/colleagues, pupils/students, parents/cares and other members of the school environment
B: producing policies: Ensure that common values are known in all corporate entities. Supportive is every single activity that helps to encourage/empower the capacity of community or rather respond to the pupils/students diversity
C: evolving practices: Every school forms its practices in such a way, that it mirrors the school culture. Pupils are stimulated to be involved actively. In doing so, their strengths, their knowledge and their extracurricular experiences get mobilized.
 Legal term is cited
We assume that people working at different tasks within the process generate various forms of knowledge. The analysis of the empiric data is addressed to explore existing knowledge, generalize the findings and define a typology. Design of the Interview-Guideline The interview guideline has a thematically open structure and inquires process and experience-knowledge, interpretation-knowledge and technical knowledge. • Reason and initial idea for the introduction of a competence-oriented assessment • Implementation planning and support system • Response of the social actors • Changes in School-culture and teaching-culture Access to the field and Sampling Within the Education Office at the Province of Bolzano the Inspectorate of Elementary and Secondary School is responsible partly for educational management and quality assurance. As a member of the planning group, the Faculty of the Free University of Bolzano projects evaluations, surveys and researches. There was plain access to 19 interview partners in six schools. Beside the steering group, the school principal took part at four schools as well. Data Documentation Disidentification is guaranteed by the compliance of the transcription guidelines (cf. Bohnsack et al 2001, Loos & Schäfer 2001). Firstly, the text passages are signed to categories (indicators of Inclusion/ Exclusion). Secondly, the categories are confronted synoptically. Ob basis of this comparison groups of similar attributes or distinguishing marks in the data are identified in single case level. The next step in the research for empirical correlations is a comparison in multidimensional contingency tables.
In combination with the findings from Ehren & Scheerens (2015) that illustrate the interdependence between principal’s actions and pupil’s achievement, we assume that school development processes have similar effects. The existing various forms of knowledge in each school give an answer to the main questions: 1. How much the respective application of competence-oriented assessment concept does enhances/impedes the transparency of learning opportunities for participants? 2. To what extend COAC does support the quality of schools as a teaching organization by inducing reflection on educational goals? 3. To what extend COAC does support the quality of schools as learning organisation?
Baron, J.N. & Pfeffer, J. (1994). The Social Psychology of Organizations and Inequality. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57 (3), pp.190-209. Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Full range of leadership development: Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden. Bogner, A.; Littig, B. & Menz, W. (2014). Interviews mit Experten Eine praxisorientierte Einführung Wiesbaden Springer VS Bohn, C. (2008). Inklusion und Exklusion: Theorien und Befunde. Von der Ausgrenzung aus der Gemeinschaft zur inkludierenden Exklusion. Soziale Systeme, 14 (2), pp. 171-190. Bohnsack, Ralf, Nentwig-Gesemann, Iris, & Nohl, Arnd-Michael (2001) (eds.). Die dokumentarische Methode und ihre Forschungspraxis. Grundlagen qualitativer Sozialforschung. Opladen: Leske + Budrich. Booth, T. & Ainscow, M (2002). Index for Inclusion: developing learning and participation in school. Published by the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE) Ehren, M.C.M., & Scheerens, J. (2015). Evidenzbasierte Referenzrahmen zur Schulqualität als Grundlage von Schulinspektion. In M. Pietsch, B. Scholand, & K. Schulte (eds.), Schulinspektion in Hamburg, Der erste Zyklus 2007–2013: Grundlagen, Befunde, Perspektiven. Münster: Waxmann, pp. 233 - 272 Goodin, R.E. (1996). Inclusion and exclusion. European Journal of Sociology, 37, pp. 343-371 Kluge, S. & Kelle, U. (2010). Vom Einzelfall zum Typus: Fallvergleich und Fallkontrastierung in der qualitativen Sozialforschung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS Leclercq-Vandelannoitte, A. (2011). Organizations as Discursive Constructions: A Foucauldian Approach. Organization Studies, 32 (9), pp. 1247-1271. Loos, P. & Schäffer, B. (2001). Das Gruppendiskussionsverfahren. Theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Anwendung. Opladen: Leske + Budrich. Maak, T., & Pless, N. M. (Eds.), Responsible Leadership. London, New York: Routledge. Pp. 33–53 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2014). DeSeCo: Definition and Selection of Competencies- Concept. www.oecd.org/edu/skills-beyond-school/definitionandselectionofcompetenciesdeseco.htm Peterlini, J. (2015). Das Recht auf „effektiven“ Unterricht in den Regelklassen von Menschen mit Behinderung und dessen Verwirklichung in Italien und Südtirol In: RdJB - Recht der Jugend und des Bildungswesens Ausgabe 1 Puhr K. & Geldner J. (2017) (eds). Eine inklusionsorientierte Schule. Springer VS, Wiesbaden Seitz, S. & Scheidt, K.: Vom Reichtum inklusiven Unterrichts - Sechs Ressourcen zur Weiterentwicklung www.inklusion-online.net/index.php/inklusion-online/article/view/62/62 [12/08/2017] Stichweh, R. & Windolf, P. (2009) (eds.). Inklusion und Exklusion: Analysen zur Sozialstruktur und sozialen Ungleichheit. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften Vobruba, G. (2000). Actors in Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion: Towards a Dynamic Approach. Social Policy & Administration, 34 (5), pp. 601-613.
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