11 SES 13, Teaching and Cognitive Development
One of the main challenges facing the education system is the promotion of inclusion policies and practices that allow the diversity of students to achieve the basic learning of compulsory education (Montiel and Arias, 2017). Faced with this complex social scenario, diversity is reflected in gender, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic level, different capacities, among others; they are elements that have a strong impact on social and educational interactions (Guillén and Valenzuela, 2015).
Educational institutions assume the challenge in the formation of students, the education they receive must be framed in a context of learning that responds to demands of society. Therefore, educating in diversity from inclusive environments is based on the principles of equality and equity, rights that all human beings posees (Arnáiza, 2011). The international reccomendation insists on the need to consider inclusive education as something unfinished, which begins in the firs years of life an remains until it is finished (Casanova, 2011:95).
A study conducted by McBrayer and Wong (2013), indicates thar educational inclusion requires significant changes of values, system and practices being essential elements in such process. Focuse a vital attention on the collaborative work among professors anda have a shared vision among the educational actors involved; in addition to the importance of materia resources and adequate training of teachers.
in diversity from inclusive environments is based on the principles of equality and equity, rights that all human beings possess (Arnáiz, 2011). The international recommendation insists on the need to consider inclusive education as something unfinished, which begins in the first years of life and remains until it is finished (Casanova, 2011: 95).
The present study is of descriptive-correlational type, in which the variables of teacher training, attitudes, teaching practice and the relationship with educational inclusion are described and analyzed. The research design used was not experimental because the field work was carried out in educational settings of primary education centers. Participants: The sample consists of 184 teachers of public primary schools of the State of Sonora. Of the total number of teachers, 56% are female and 44% male. Instruments: The questionnaire-scale was applied on the integration and inclusion of people with educational and diverse needs (Gento, 2007). The questionnaire is made up of the following scales: Integration and inclusion attitude, teacher training, teaching practice and educational inclusion. The evaluation scale used is Likert type with five response alternatives. Procedure and analysis of the data: For the application of the instrument, primary school centers were first visited with the managers to have the authorization and to apply the questionnaire. Once the data collection was completed, the respective analysis was continued, where the statistical data base SPSS version 21.00 was used.
In accordance with the proposed objectives, it was possible to demonstrate that elementary teachers show a need and demand for constant training. In this context, the initial teacher training curricula only include two subjects related to this subject, therefore, a scarce formation is detected to attend to diversity and inclusion. On the other hand, teachers specializing in special education work in specialized centers such as the Multiple Care Center and the staff that provides support are the Regular Education Support Services Units (USAER), which attend only once a week at regular primary schools; being factors that infer for an adequate diagnosis and treatment in the cases that are required. In this regard, it is affirmed that teacher training around diversity affects the teacher's inclusive practice in the classroom, finding a correlation of .644 *. These results are consistent with research conducted by Pegalajar and Colmenero (2017), where it is evident that teachers do not have adequate initial training, adding to this situation the lack of material resources; however, attitudes are more favorable for teachers with little professional experience. On the other hand, Campa, Valenzuela and Guillén (2015), mention that within the framework of inclusion it is essential that educational centers have curricular adaptations, diagnoses and evaluations; at the same time that the parents of the student are involved in the educational activities and that there is a collaborative work among the students.
Arnáiz, P. (2011). Fighting against exclusion: good practice and school success.Educational Innovation Magazine. No. 21. p.p. 23-25. Campa, R., Valenzuela, B. and Guillén, M. (2015). Chapter 7. Attention to diversity andinclusion in the context of primary education: a study with teachers from the state ofSonora. Enríquez, J., Guillén, M., Valenzuela, B. and Jaime, M. (Coords.). (2015).Society, culture and education in Sonora. Mexico: Edition: Qartuppi. Casanova, M. (2011). Inclusive Education: a model of the future. Spain: Edit. WoltersKluwers Gento, S. (2007). Requirements for a quality inclusion in the educational treatment. Bordón59 (4), p.p. 581-595. Guillén, M. and Valenzuela, B. (2015). Chapter 2. Diversity and educational inclusion inSonora, Mexico. Challenge in construction. In Valenzuela, B., Guillén, M. andMedina, A. (2015). Educational processes: challenges and challenges in the 21stcentury. Pearson: Mexico McBrayer, K. and Wong. (2013). Inclusive education services for children and youth withdisabilities: Values, roles and challenges of school leaders. Children and YouthServices Review, 35 (9). p.p. 1520-1525. Recovered athttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740913002259 Montiel, G. and Arias, L. (2017). Teaching practice in attention of students with specialeducational needs. Electronic Magazine on technology, education and society. Vol.4, No. 7. Retrieved at www.ctes.org.mx/index.php/ctes/article/download/653/733 Pegalajar, M. and Colmenero, M. (2017). Attitudes and teacher training towards inclusionin Compulsory Secondary Education. Electronic Journal of Educational Research,19 (1), 84-97. Recovered from http://redie.uabc.mx/redie/article/view/765
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