ERG SES D 08, Academic Achievement and Education
Educational researchers have been investigated the methods of enhancing education and ensuring desirable student academic achievement. Hence, the issue of student success has become a crucial matter for educational institutions. Actually, there are a lot of studies that exist on elucidating the effect of educational theories on student achievement. In today’s educational area, one of the trend approaches is Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT) that has implications for educational settings to enhance student achievement. Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of MIT studies. Multiple Intelligences theory suggested by Howard Gardner (1993) defended that there are different types of intelligences in human brain that can be explored if suitable circumstances are provided. The eight multiple intelligences were suggested by Gardner contain the following: (1) Linguistic intelligence is related to using words effectively, (2) Logical-mathematical intelligence is associated with capacity to use numbers efficiently, (3) Spatial intelligence is comprehending the visual-spatial environment accurately, (4) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is expertise in utilizing one’s body, (5) Musical intelligence is related to sense musical stuff, (6) Interpersonal intelligence is associated with making distinctions in the state of mind, intentions, and emotions of other individuals, (7) Intrapersonal intelligence is self-knowledge and the capability to behave adaptively on the basis of that knowledge, (8) Naturalist intelligence is expertise in the recognition and classification of a great deal of species, nature and individual’s environment. In addition, MIT-based instruction depends on the instructors’ utilizing diversity of activities, techniques, practices, methods, ways and strategies to explore and embolden those intelligences of the learners (Armstrong, 2000).
Essentially, there is no systematic review study in Turkey investigating peer reviewed academic articles concerning the effects of MIT-based instruction on academic achievement. Therefore, it will be helpful to analyze the actual situation of the MIT studies in the field of education. This systematic review attempts to use a systematic method to analyze the results of the existing studies on the effect of MIT on students’ academic achievement. Findings about the MIT that have significant impact on student success are very practicable to policy making in Turkish Educational System. The existent literature on multiple intelligence theory indicated that there are a lot of studies which are studied by different disciplines such as neurosciences and psychology. Actually, the present study only consider on the studies that are studied by education discipline with a geographical context. In addition, related literature shows that multiple intelligences theory studies comprise different themes such as attitudes, perceptions, correlational studies, and literature review in education area. In fact, this study focused on multiple intelligence theory-based instruction in terms of its effect on the students’ academic success. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to utilize a systematic review procedure to identify the effect of multiple intelligences theory-based education on students’ academic achievement. The first research question of this study is “Does MIT-based instruction effect on students’ academic achievement?”. The second research question is “What kind of effect does MIT-based instruction have on students’ academic achievement?”. The third research question is “In which subjects does MIT-based instruction affect students’ academic achievement?”.
The literature search was conducted in the specific electronic databases that include the most publications regarding educational research. We used the term “multiple intelligences theory”, and its combination of educational terms in both English and Turkish languages. In a systematic review, the inclusion criteria are an important matter that limits range of studies. The first criterion was that the research was carried out in the educational context. The second criterion is that studies about MIT were conducted in Turkey. The third criterion is that studies about the effects of MIT-based education on academic achievement were reviewed. Additionally, at first literature review search was conducted in the in 35 year period from 1983-2018 due to the date of the emergence of multiple intelligence theory. Then, it was recognized that researchers have been conducted the studies about MIT since 2006 in Turkey. Thus, the peer reviewed academic articles that have full-text version on the electronic databases from 2006 to 2018 years were reviewed. It was identified 1196 articles in EBSCOhost, 831 in ERIC, 97 in Web of Science (WOS), 189 in ULAKBİM, 161 in DergiPark. The search initially resulted in a total of 2474 articles. Then, all articles were added to Mendeley reference manager in order to start screening. Firstly, all articles were checking for duplicates, resulting in 751 articles being removed and 1723 articles were included. Secondly, we began to check for studies in Turkey context and we removed 1468 studies that are not about local by considering the geographical inclusion criteria. Therefore, we included 255 articles which are about in Turkey context after second checking process. Then, 221 articles were eliminated on the basis of title and abstract that includes unrelated topics to academic achievement such as students’ attitudes toward MIT instruction, perceptions of teachers about MIT-based education, MIT literature review in education, and correlational studies about MIT instruction. Thus, we included 34 articles that are considered on effects of MIT on academic achievement. After that, we began to read full text articles by considering inclusion criteria again and we excluded 9 articles that are unrelated to academic achievement. Finally, 25 articles were selected by considering the inclusion criteria that mainly contain Turkish educational context and effect of MIT-based instruction on academic achievement. Finally, the citation, design, purpose, sample, instrumentation, subject, and primary results from all 25 articles that provided the criteria of this systematic review were extracted.
All included peer reviewed articles were obtained from 17 academic journals. Of these articles, according to the methodology, 17 were experimental (68%), 3 were quasi-experimental (12%), 2 were mixed method (8%), and 3 were meta-analysis (12%). Except from the qualitative parts of the 2 mixed method design studies, all studies utilized quantitative methodology due to this systematic review is focused on academic achievement. According the results of 25 studies, MIT-based instruction had a significant effect on student achievement in Turkey (Alaz, 2009; Baki et al., 2009; Balim, 2006; Baş, 2016; Baş & Beyhan, 2010; Çırakoğlu & Saraçoğlu, 2009; Demirci & Yağcı, 2008; Erkaçan & Ünsal, 2012; Gürcay & Ferah, 2017; Hasanekoğlu & Gürbüzoğlu, 2009; Ilgar & Babacan, 2012; Işık & Tarım, 2009; Iyitoğlu & Aydın, 2015; Kaplan et al., 2015; Kayran & Iflazoğlu, 2007; Köksal & Yel, 2007; Kurt & Temelli, 2011; Nacakçı, 2009; Özdemir et al., 2006; Tabuk & Özdemir, 2009; Ucak et al., 2006; Yalmancı & Gözüm, 2013; Yıldırım & Tarım, 2008; Yıldırım et al., 2006; Yurt & Polat, 2015). Actually, all of the experimental and quasi-experimental studies which are reviewed found significant mean differences between control and experimental groups in favor of the treatment group studied. In addition, mixed-method studies also demonstrate that MIT effects students’ achievement positively. Furthermore, Meta-analysis studies also show that MIT-based education was determined to have a large effect size on students’ academic achievement levels. Of these 25 articles, according to the subjects, 6 were about math (26%), 4 were about science (17%), 4 were about biology (17%), 2 were about chemistry (9%), 2 were about English (9%), 2 were about geography (9%), 1 were about Turkish (4%),1 were about physics (4%),1 were about music (4%). Two studies from 25 articles did not mention about the subject of MIT-based instruction.
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