10 SES 11 C, Teacher Efficacy, the Change Laboratory and Online Learning
Online learning is currently one of the most modern topics in teaching and learning. Therefore research literature on learners perceptions about online learning is very much developed (Lowenthal/Bauer/Chen 2015; Smart/Cappel 2006; Song et al. 2004).
However, there are only a few approaches in this area focussing on the professional development of teachers. So far, some of the contributions to the discussion can be been found in the research in less developed countries on teacher training in an open and distance learning setting (Vongai et al 2012; Mahlangu 2017). The overwhelming majority of the discussion and professional articles deal with e-learning within teaching and not as a continuing education instrument for teachers themselves (Perraton et al. 2002).
In this study, we investigate the perception of teachers on online learning for themselves.
Teachers of vocational education from Germany, Italy, and Poland were interviewed about online learning as a tool of teacher training. The added value lies in embedding this survey into a concrete online learning approach. Within an EU-funded project, a teacher training tool has been developed. The web-based online tool provides methods and examples to support the teaching of self-competencies and social skills in the classroom.
The teacher opinions were evaluated on the basis of the variable acceptance (Ivancevich et al. 1996). This variable can be assigned the dimensions "general perception of online learning" and "motivation and satisfaction" (Athanasis 2011). The results show a different assessment of the different dimensions between the three countries.
The methodology included a standardized online questionnaire in the respective national language. This was tested and optimized in advance in a pre-test. In order to avoid translation errors in the questionnaire, the understanding of the individual questions was discussed in detail with the international project partners. The quantitative interview method was used to compare the transnational perceptions. A four-level Likert scale was used to scale the perceptions so that different perceptions could be displayed. In order to ensure that the questions could be answered truthfully, the evaluation was carried out anonymously and voluntarily by teachers. The questionnaire was answered after finishing the online teacher training tool. In total 74 teachers took part in the survey.
The findings present teacher's perceptions of teacher education through online learning. The results clearly showed that between the three countries there are various perceptions concerning online learning for teachers. Scepticism towards new forms of learning for teachers are a reason for a cautious approach. In addition, it also plays an important role to what extent formal further training measures, especially for teachers, are represented in the respective country. The results show that the basic attitude towards e-learning as an instrument for continuing teacher education among teachers is positive. However, the time factor and the perception of continuing education as a teacher are, among other things, inhibiting factors that can influence the acceptance of e-learning. Other differences arise from cultural, age and gender aspects.
Ivancevich, J.M., Konopaske, R.; Matteson, M.T. (1996). Organizational Behavior and Management, 9th ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin: New York/Toronto. Karoulis, A. (2011). On Motivation to Apply ODL in Adult Teachers' Education. Informatics in Education, 10(1), 37-45. Lowenthal, P; Bauer, C.; Chen, K.-Z. (2015). Student Perceptions of Online Learning: An Analysis of Online Course Evaluations. American Journal of Distance Education, 29(2), 85-97. Mahlangu, V.P. (2017). Professional Development of Adult Learners through Open and Distance Learning. In Renes, S.L. (Ed.), Global Voices in Higher Education. InTech: Croatia, 131-145. Perraton, H.; Creed, C.; Robinson, B. (2002). Teacher Education Guidelines: using open and distance learning. UNESCO: Paris. Smart K.; Cappel J. (2006). Students’ Perceptions of Online Learning: A Comparative Study. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5, 201-219. Song, L. et al. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 59–70. Vongai, M. et al. (2012). Challenges of Virtual and Open Distance Science Teacher Education in Zimbabwe. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(1), 207-219.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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