14 SES 08 A, The Role of Parents in Reading, STEM and Career Adaptability
Parents play a major role in their children’s education (Neuman, 1996; Baker, 2003). As pointed out by Parcel and Bixby (2016) parents' working conditions, including occupational complexity and work schedules, influence children's home environments as well as their children's development. They also proved that family social capital is more important than school social capital in influencing both cognitive and social outcomes of child (Parcel & Bixby, 2016). Large number of studies show that parents are associated with children’s reading achievement (e.g., Kush, Watkins, & Brookhart, 2005; Olofson & Niedersoe, 1999; Weinberger, 1996), for example parents’ educational level shows a strong relationship with third graders reading achievement (Myrberg & Rosen, 2006). Chiu and Ko (2008) claim that high school is the critical level of mothers’ education on fostering children’s literacy development. As proven by Myrberg and Rosen by PIRLS 2001 data analysis of Swedish students, well-educated parents use their knowledge to create an educational environment for their children (Myrberg & Rosen, 2009). Of all school subjects, reading has been found to be most sensitive to parental influences (Senechal & LeFevre, 2002) although the benefits of parental involvement extend beyond the realm of literacy and educational achievement (Clark, 2007).
In this paper changes on parents influence on children’s reading literacy is studied. It has been 17 years since the first IEA PIRLS study of 4th grade students reading literacy. As mentioned above, there has always been a strong parental influence on the achievement, but during 21st century parents have changed, so has their characteristics. The research question of this paper is: how has the influence of parental characteristic on primary school children’s reading literacy changed during last 17 years?
The objective of the research is find out how changes in society (e.g. higher average level of parents education, less number of printed books at home etc.) have influenced the impact parents make on their children’s reading literacy achievement.
In this study IEA PIRLS 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016 data from parents’ questionnaires and students’ achievement are used to analyze parents influence on students’ reading literacy. Data about countries’ socioeconomic background are also used. The countries of the research interest are those European countries which participated in two or more cycles of PIRLS study. Research unit is a country. Panel data analyze has been performed. Panel data method is appropriate when the researcher has available observations that are both cross-sectional and time series. This method makes it possible to follow changes in previous years but actually give effect in a longer period of time.
In the dynamically changing social environment new methods for children’s early reading development will be needed. Part of old indicators of high achievement might lose its’ significance. This research is a try too look behind this curtain of what we already know into the future of different parents and their children in a diverse set of European countries. Outcomes of the study could be a source of recommendations for parents, policy makers, teachers and education experts.
Chiu, C.H., & Ko, H.W. (2008). Parental factors related to children’s reading: Evidence from comparing transnational marriage families and local families. Paper at IEA International Research Conference. Clark, C. (2007). Why families matter to literacy: A brief research summary. London, England: National Literacy Trust. Kush, J. C., Watkins, M. W., & Brookhart, S. M. (2005). The temporal-interactive influence of reading achievement and reading attitude. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11(1), 29–44. Myrberg, E. & Rosén M. (2006). Reading achievement and social selection into independent schools in Sweden - Results from IEA PIRLS 2001. Scandinavian Journal of Educational. Research, 50 (2), 185–205. Myrberg, E., & Rosén, M (2009). Direct and indirect effects of parents' education on reading achievement among third graders in Sweden. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(4), 695–711. Neuman, S.B. (1996). Children engaging in storybook reading: The influence of access to print resources, opportunity and parental interaction. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 11, 495-514. Olofson, A. & Niedersoe, J. (1999). Early language development and kindergarten phonological awareness as predictors of reading problems: From 3 to 11 years of age. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 464-472. Parcel, T. L. and Bixby, M. S. (2016). The Ties That Bind: Social Capital, Families, and Children's Well-Being. Child Dev Perspect, 10: 87–92. doi:10.1111/cdep.12165 Senechal, M. & LeFevre, J. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: A five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, vol. 73, no 2, 445-460. Weinberger, J. (1996). A longitudinal study of children’s early literacy experiences at home and later literacy development at home and school. Journal of Research in Reading, 19, 14–24.
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