11 SES 11 A, Standards Assessments and Quality Assurance
Since the creation of Quality Management Systems (QMS), their implementation has been promoted in various organisations and, in recent decades, in educational institutions. Among the QMS models, the ones most frequently used in education are ISO 9001 Standards and the excellence model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) (Camacho, 2016; López Cabanes and Ruiz Gimeno, 2004).
The purpose of implementing QMS in this setting is to understand the actual situation in schools in order to foster continuous improvements, as well as innovation, in the search for excellence and quality (Martínez and Riopérez, 2005). Evaluating the impact (understood as substantial and sustainable changes) that these systems have on schools is important. However, in spite of the benefits that they may initially provide educational organisations, there are hardly any studies analysing the impact they have on teaching-learning processes (Fernández Díaz, 2013), the latter being a significant feature in any school.
In the teaching-learning process, family involvement is a determining factor for student academic performance (Jeynes, 2011; Sanders and Sheldon, 2009). Their participation also has an effect on the school's quality and teachers' work, aside from on the families themselves (Auduc, 2007; García Bacete, 2003). Likewise, family involvement improves their children's study habits, parents' expectations about their performance, and communication between them, and it also diminishes disruptive classroom behaviour (Hornby, 2000). However, in contrast to these advantages, there are studies that indicate participation by families in schools is generally low (Feito, 2011; Silveira, 2016). It is, thus, of interest to evaluate any improvement of family-school relationships generated by the implementation of a QMS.
Teaching methodology is another key aspect in the teaching-learning process. The work carried out by teachers to facilitate student learning is of great importance to improve the school (Langstrand, Cronemyr & Poksinska, 2015). Therefore, it is essential in this context to put into practice methodologies included in the syllabus, adapt them to student characteristics offering diversity in teaching, and provide methods that motivate students (Sacristán, Garrido, González and Alfalla, 2012). The intention thus is to innovate in the teaching-learning process so that the teachers' function is not merely delivering information, but also planning and guiding, while giving students an increasingly important role (Whetten, 2007). It was appropriate then to examine to what extent implementation of a QMS had an impact on teaching methodology.
Another key element in the teaching-learning process are the guidance plans of action. Precisely due to the new teacher functions, and allowing for diversity, authors such as Gairín, Feixas, Gullamón and Quinquer (2004) have stated that guidance should be inherent in teaching practice, as it helps develop a teaching-learning process that takes into account student needs and interests, regardless of their characteristics. Therefore, it was of interest to evaluate the impact which implementation of QMS had in this context, as well as to understand the improvements generated in relation to plans of action based on student performance and various assessment elements.
Therefore, the main objective of this study was, on the one hand, to analyse the impact which implementation of two QMS (ISO:9001 STANDARDS and EFQM) had on the teaching-learning process in schools and, on the other, to compare the effects of the two systems.
We conducted a non-experimental, exploratory and ex-post-facto study, using a tool designed by Carballo Santaolalla, Fernández-Díaz and Rodríguez-Mantilla (2017), which evaluated the impact that implementation of QMS had on various dimensions in schools, including the teaching-learning process. The tool had 15 items (Likert-type scale from 1 to 5) and showed satisfactory validity and reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.942). The questionnaire was divided into 6 dimensions: Plans of Action based on Learning Outcomes, Family Involvement, Teaching Methodology, Education Assessments, Guidance and Overall Evaluation of the Impact on Teaching-Learning Processes. Field work was carried out in Spanish schools belonging to the Autonomous Communities of Madrid (27.4%), Andalusia (42.4%), Valencia (10.1%) and Castilla y León (20%), with 73.3% private schools with state subsidies, 11.7% private and 15% public. Schools could participate if they had implemented the QMS for at least 3 years, with 24.40% of the schools having a EFQM system and 75.6% ISO:9001 STANDARDS. The size of the schools participating in the study was distributed quite evenly, with 39.5% having fewer than 500 students, 37% between 500 and 1,000 students and 23.5% over 1,000 students. Similarly, teachers had to have worked at the schools for a minimum of 3 years. We obtained a total sample of 2,901 subjects (37.8% male and 62.2% female), of which 85.6% were teachers, 2.8% heads of quality and 11.6% members of the Management Team. 24.9% had been working at the school for 3-5 years, 25.4% between 6-10 years, and 49.7% more than 11 years Once we compiled the questionnaire data from the sample, we conducted statistical analyses (SPSS 24). First, we conducted descriptive studies of the impact of implementing QMS on the dimension Teaching-Learning Processes and then, differential analyses (applying independent samples t-test, ANOVA and Scheffé with a significance level of .01) depending on the two QMS (EFQM and ISO:9001 STANDARDS). We also conducted general differential analyses based on other category variables, such as type of school, age, position, region, etc.
The results of the descriptive studies indicate there has been a high impact on teaching-learning processes of implementing both QMS (EFQM X=3.50; ISO9001 X=3.32), with the best scores being obtained in the subdimensions Evaluation (EFQM X=3.91; ISO9001 X=3.73), Guidance (EFQM X=3.44; ISO9001 X=3.88), Educational Methodology (EFQM X=3.13; ISO9001 X=3.27) and Plans of Action (EFQM X=3.56; ISO9001 X=3.16). The differential analyses conducted showed that private schools with state subsidies, of the Community of Valencia or Andalusia, that had implemented ISO:9001 STANDARDS for more than 9 years and with no more than 29 teachers, generally had a higher impact on teaching-learning processes, as well as higher assessments from the Management Team or the Quality Coordinators, compared to those from teachers. However, the differential analyses based on the type of QMS implemented (Student's t - p≤0.01), showed significant differences in most of the items of the dimension teaching-learning processes, and in general terms, the schools with the EFQM model had higher scores than those schools with ISO:9001 STANDARDS. Specifically, we found significant differences in the subdimension Assessments, for example, in relation to student review of assessments (F=32.909; Sig.=.000) and specification of assessment criteria for students and parents (F=17.523; Sig.=.000). Likewise, we found significant differences in the Teaching Methodology, for example, in relation to the organisation of flexible groups based on students' learning pace (F=13.903; Sig.=.000). In the subdimension Family Involvement at School, we found significant differences in improved communications with parents on their children's learning progress (F=20.177; Sig.=.000).
- Auduc, J. L. (2007): Les relations parents-enseignants à l’école primaire (Paris, CRDP de l’académie de Créteil). - Camacho, C. D. R. F. (2016). La evaluación de la excelencia organizacional en el ámbito de la Educación Secundaria (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad de Sevilla) - Carballo Santaolalla, R., Fernández Díaz, M. J., & Rodríguez Mantilla, J. M. (2017). Design and validation of a scale to evaluate the impact of implementing a quality management system in schools. Revista Complutense de Educación, 28(4), 1211-1226. - Feito, R. (2011): Los retos de la participación escolar. Elección, control y gestión de los centros educativos (Madrid, Editorial Morata). - Fernández-Díaz, M.J. (2013). Evaluación del impacto para un cambio sostenible en las organizaciones educativas. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 254, 45–65. - Gairín, J., Feixas, M., Gullamón, C. y Quinquer, D. (2004). Tutoría académica de la educación superior. Revista interuniversitaria de formación del profesorado, 18(1), 1-10. - García Bacete, F.J. (2003): Las relaciones escuela-familia: un reto educativo, Infancia y Aprendizaje, 26 (4), 425-438. - Hornby, G. (2000). Improving Parental Involvement. London: GBR. - Jeynes, W.H. (2011). Parental Involvement and Academic Success. New York: Routledge. - Langstrand, J., Cronemyr, P., & Poksinska, B. (2015). Practise what you preach: quality of education in education on quality. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 26(11-12), 1202-1212. - López Cabanes, A. y Ruiz Gimeno, J. (2004). Gestión de la calidad en centros educativos no Universitarios ¿qué es?, ¿para qué vale?, ¿cómo se puede aplicar? Educar en el 2000, 49-64. - Martínez Mediano, C., & Riopérez Losada, N. (2005). El modelo de excelencia en la EFQM y su aplicación para la mejora de la calidad de los centros educativos. Educación XX1, (8). - Sacristán, M., Garrido, P., González, M.M & Alfalla, R. (2012). ¿Por qué los alumnos no asisten a clase y no se presentan a los exámenes? Datos y reflexiones sobre absentismo y abandono universitario. WPOM, 3(2), 103-112. - Sanders, M.G. y Sheldon S.B. (2009). Principals Matter. A Guide to School, Family and Community Partnership. London: Sage. - Silveira, H. (2016). La participación de las familias en los centros educativos. Un derecho en construcción. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 19(1), 17-29. - Whetten, D.A. (2007). Principles of effective course design: What I wish I had known about learning-centered teaching 30 years ago. Journal of Management Education, 31(3), 339–357.
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