20 SES 17, Inclusion, Interculturality and Refugees: Approaches and didactics
In recent years, the number of people forcibly displaced has increased dramatically in the world, as had not happened since the World War II, with a total of 65.3 million people, an increase of 50% in the last five years (UNHCR, 2015). In Spain, fifteen thousand people have applied for asylum in 2016; only 220 people have achieved refugee status and other 800 have subsidiary protection, which indicates little social protection and a decrease compared to previous years (Spanish Commission for Aid Refugee (CEAR), 2016).
This situation has caused the Spanish educational centers to have to adapt their organization and reorganize their educational actions in this new situation. At the same time, they have to promote and work to prevent racism, prejudice (Home Office, 2002) and manage diversity (Gardenswartz & Rowe, 1998). There are several studies that have dealt with the educational response of refugees in host countries (Matthews, 2008, Taylor & Sidhu, 2012). In case studies of refugee children in the UK, Rutter identifies three necessary responses to good practice: having a welcoming and racist-free environment, meeting the psychosocial needs of students, and meeting their language needs (Holden, 2007). Arnot and Pinson (2005) highlight three strengths for success: the relationship between school and families, their participation and also their training (for example with English classes to improve their own learning and to help their children); the links with the community; and networking (social services, health, housing, etc.). As common values, they identify having previous experience with students from other cultures, promoting a positive image of refugees, establishing indicators of successful integration, a spirit of inclusion and a comprehensive support approach (Arnot & Pinson, 2005).
In relation to the education of adults, several authors emphasize that it has an important role in social change, since access to education and knowledge prevent marginalization and social exclusion (Freire, 1994, Freire & Macedo, 1987). Thus, adult education has an urgent role in creating opportunities in a group in clear risk of social exclusion in today's society, such as refugees and immigrants. At the same time, the adult school has the need to develop, both in its operation and in its actions, with respect to diversity.
For all these reasons, we have asked ourselves what factors of success in the reception of refugees are found in adult schools, especially those that have or have created shelter programs. We also start from the need to know what measures ensure access to quality training for refugees and whether they have been an improvement for the adult schools themselves.
This communication deepens the educational responses of success in refugee adults, from a case study in an adults' school located in a working-class neighbourhood of Barcelona (Spain) that welcomed 80 different nationalities refugees in 2016. The Adult School of La Verneda-Sant Martí (Sanchez Aroca, 1999) is a reference at international level because its trajectory and its educational practices have contributed to the education of adults and the movement of democratic education (Oliver, Tellado, Yuste , Fernandez, Larena Fernandez, 2016). The school was born in 1978 with the objective of meeting the demands of the residents of the neighbourhood of La Verneda, who needed a school for adults to increase academic education. Since then, the school is based on internationally recognized pedagogical theories (Freire, 1994) and the dialogic learning (Flecha, 2000). In addition, it also carries out Successful Educational Actions (European Commission, 2006-2011). Since its beginning, the school has taught people to read and write, empowered adults to obtain academic degrees that have helped them to enter the labour market and / or to access university. Such is its success in educational actions that currently it has approximately 2,000 participants, 5 workers and 150 volunteers. The key to its success lies in effective democratic organization and functioning (Oliver, Tellado, Yuste, Fernandez, Larena Fernandez, 2016), as well as an extensive development of successful educational actions (SEA) and an accessible schedule (the school is open from Monday to Sunday, from 9 am to 10 pm). The participants (students), together with the teachers and volunteers, determine and organize the activities that will take place in the school. In addition, the school offers flexible programs that allow refugees to register at any time during the year, without a waiting list. The courses take place throughout the week and at different times of the day to ensure that everyone can participate. The objective of the available programs is also to respond to the needs of the refugees, since the offer includes language and computer classes.
The underlying factors that we have identified for the success of the reception have been: the values of the school, such as solidarity; the promotion of dialogical leadership (Redondo-Sama, 2015), in which the entire community proposes and leads the reception process; and the dialogical learning methodology (Aubert et al., 2008), by which the inclusion and cohesion of all the participants (students) and their educational success is guaranteed. From here, a series of measures for the inclusion of refugees have been facilitated: free basic training, from Monday to Sunday and with open enrolment all year round; participation in the community; the prevention of racism and respect for human rights; the promotion of refugees as volunteers; the accreditation of competences; the educational orientation and the pedagogical training of other volunteers in the city. All these measures ensure not only access to training, but also to quality training: "I have been in several associations and schools in Barcelona but this one is different, it is exemplary. My first day I felt at home, I did not feel any difference "(Refugee from Libya, 2016). Through the equal dialogue generated in the classrooms, it also helps to break down stereotypes and prejudices and to overcome the refugee vision as a problem. In addition, the fact that some of them have become references as volunteer teachers, has changed the perception of refugees as people who receive help to people who give it. In conclusion, the democratic model of adult education has allowed not only a real reception, but also the creation of meaning of all the participants of the school who have seen their wishes of solidarity fulfilled; as well as the emergence of the social capital of the refugees, which has meant an improvement for the School itself and for the entire neighbourhood.
Arnot, M., & Pinson, H. (2005). The Education of Asylum-Seeker & Refugee Children: A Study of LEA and School Values, Policies and Practices. Education, (July), 69. Retrieved from www.cambridgeprinting.org Aubert, Adriana; Flecha, A; García, C ; Flecha, R ; Racionero, S. (2008). Aprendizaje dialógico en la sociedad de la información. Hipatia. Comisión Española de Ayuda al Refugiado(CEAR). (2016). Informe 2016: Las personas refugiadas en España y Europa. Madrid. Retrieved from https://www.cear.es/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Informe_CEAR_2016.pdf European Commission. (n.d.). INCLUD-ED Project. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from education. 6th Framework Programme. Citizens and Governance in a Knowledge-based Society. CIT4-CT-2006-028603. Directorate-General for Research, European Commission. Flecha, R. (2000). Sharing words : theory and practice of dialogic learning. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Freire, P. (1994). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. (S. E. U. Highlighting, Ed.). Freire, P., & Macedo, D. P. (Donaldo P. (1987). Literacy : reading the word & the world. Bergin & Garvey Publishers. Gardenswartz, L., & Rowe, A. (1998). Managing diversity : a complete desk reference and planning guide. McGraw-Hill. Holden, C. (2007). Refugee Children in the UK. British Journal of Educational Studies, 55(2), 215-216. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8527.2007.373_1.x Home Office. (2002). Secure Borders, Safe Haven Integration with Diversity in Modern Britain. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/250926/cm5387.pdf Matthews, J. (2008). Schooling and settlement: refugee education in Australia. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 18(1), 31-45. http://doi.org/10.1080/09620210802195947 Oliver, E (Oliver, Esther)[ 1 ] ; Tellado, I (Tellado, Itxaso)[ 2 ] ; Yuste, M (Yuste, Montserrat)[ 3 ] ; Fernandez, RL (Larena Fernandez, R. 4 ]. (2016). The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain. Teachers College Record, 118(4). Retrieved from https://apps-webofknowledge-com.sire.ub.edu/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=C3CcQiukvHIi4T2LoGC&page=1&doc=2 Redondo-Sama, G. (2015). Liderazgo dialógico en comunidades de aprendizaje. Intangible Capital, 11(3), 437-457. http://doi.org/10.3926/ic.651 Sanchez Aroca, M. (1999). Voices Inside Schools - La Verneda-Sant Martí: A School Where People Dare to Dream. Harvard Educational Review, 69(3), 320-336. http://doi.org/10.17763/haer.69.3.gx588q10614q3831 Taylor, S., & Sidhu, R. K. (2012). Supporting refugee students in schools: what constitutes inclusive education? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 16(1), 39-56. http://doi.org/10.1080/13603110903560085 UNHCR. (2015). Tendencias globales: Desplazamiento Forzado en 2015. Retrieved from http://www.acnur.org/fileadmin/Documentos/Publicaciones/2016/10627.pdf?view=1
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