11 SES 09 B, Innovation and School Improvement
The competences of professional identity, educational innovation and communication constitute key axes of the professionalization of young teachers and researchers to build models and methods that propitiate improvements in higher education institutions and in the professional development of each student participating in the Master.
The professional identity is considered substantial to ensure that the students of the master's degree assume the innovation of teaching and educational research (Medina, Domínguez & Sánchez, 2013). The keys to the personal, academic and professional development of the teaching staff are closely linked, both to the self-analysis and experiences lived in the performance of teaching, as well as to the processes of narration and construction of professional knowledge linked to the collaborative interpretation of the challenges that educational diversity poses to each teacher (Day et al, 2017).
Likewise, educational innovation is the creation of a comprehensive culture to improve educational practice and the institution (Medina-R, Cacheiro & Medina-M, 2016). This path of innovation is conceptualized by Jiménez, González & Fandos (2016) as deliberation, change and optimization.
These competences are favored through reflection from the formative action itself, as pointed out by Le Boterf (2010) and Aswhinn et al. (2015), considering it as a dimension of professionalism. Lamote & Engels (2010) stand out as characteristics of the development of the professional identity: self-efficacy, commitment and orientation to the task. On the other hand, Mohamed et al. (2016) consider that these competences are included in processes of transformation and improvement of professional life.
The communication competence acquires a relevant value in the construction of the models and methods that the teachers apply with their students to achieve an optimal interaction and development of relations of empathy and emotional harmony with them. In this way, an adaptation of the paraverbal and non-verbal code is achieved in face-to-face educational situations. It is also about achieving an open and collaborative style in cybernetic scenarios (Huber, 2017, Domínguez & García, 2012).
The nuclear competencies that we present in this research require a high level of preparation on the part of the teaching staff to assume the challenge of a quality university education (Domínguez, Leví, Medina & Ramos, 2012). The competences of professional identity, educational innovation and communication constitute the most outstanding ways of sharing a teaching style that stimulates a creative and transformative learning for each student.
The process of innovation and development of teaching practices must be based on the protagonism and complicity of the students, achieving high levels of motivation, when designing a typology of tasks, which connects with their expectations and interests. It is necessary to create a personal and shared learning scenario in which the students propose self-facilitating tasks for a continuous mastery of the competences worked on.
In this context, the research question is: What competences determine the professional development of the students of the education master's degree on strategies and technologies for the teaching function? To answer this question, the following objectives are proposed:
- Analyze the relevance of the tasks proposed to the students of the master for their professional development.
- Generate innovative teaching teams that contribute to reflective teaching as a basis for training in the competencies of master students.
- Involve students in educational research to master the competencies of innovation, communication and identity, in coherence with the profile of the Master in Strategies and Technologies for the Teaching Function in the Multicultural Society.
The research carried out has applied quantitative and qualitative methods (mixed approach) (Huber, Gürtler, & Gento, 2018) to evaluate the domain achieved in the respective competencies (professional identity, innovation and communication), by analyzing the data of the questions closed and open of the questionnaire. Based on the research objectives, the COMDISDOC ad hoc questionnaire has been prepared, which has been the basis of the mixed approach, in its quantitative and qualitative options, for each of the dimensions-competences. The questionnaire prepared has been validated by experts, having obtained a reliability higher than 0.901 in the different dimensions. Likewise, a qualitative analysis has been carried out based on the design of tasks carried out through the specific forum of the subject. Of the 108 students enrolled in the subject, 77 participants answered the questionnaire, with a clear predominance of women who exceeded 80%. Regarding the experience in the educational field, it exceeds 70%. Participation in the innovation and research forum has progressively decreased, with an average of 100 pages of contributions on the proposed tasks for each dimension-competence being generated for its analysis. The quantitative analysis of the answers to the questionnaire has been carried out through the SPSS program. The qualitative data of the answers to the open questions, as well as the content analysis corresponding to the tasks carried out by the students, compiled through the forum, applying the Atlas.ti program.
The study has allowed to answer the research question, evidencing that the training of the students of the Master is essential for their innovative and professional training. The main findings are presented for each objective. Regarding Oobjective 1 "Analyze the relevance of the set of tasks proposed to the students of the master for their professional development", the study has made it possible to become aware of the importance of the competences studied, with a singular recognition of professional identity, in coherence with the previous literature (Day et al., 2017; Medina, Domínguez & Sánchez, 2013; Valenzuela et al, 2013). Regarding Objective 2 "Generating innovative teaching teams that contribute to reflective teaching as a basis for training in the competencies of master students", it is found that by inviting students to reflect in pairs and in global collaboration, starting of the answers of the teaching staff, it has been possible to improve the climate of academic and professional exchange and consolidation. These results are discussed with relevant literature (Aswhinn et al., 2015, Leithwood, 1981, García-Hoz, 1988, Medina et al., 2016, López, 2016, Huber, Gürtler & Gento, 2018). Regarding Objective 3 "Involve students in educational research to master the competencies of innovation, communication and identity, in coherence with the profile of the Master in Strategies and Technologies for the Teaching Function in the Multicultural Society", the mixed approach has allowed to discover the transversal approach facilitated to the students, which has contributed to the development of the instructional-formative task, the education based on competences and the self-evaluation, in coherence with the works of Medina et al. (2013), and Domínguez et al. (2014). The study results are discussed considering the quality criteria that guide higher education and quality teaching, in the adaptation of professional thinking and practice with teaching and learning competencies.
Aswhinn, P. et al (2015). Reflective Teaching in Higher Education. London: Bloomsbury Day, Ch. et al. (2017). Competence-based Education and Teacher Professional Development. In M. Mulder, Competence-based Vocational and Professional Education, Technical and Vocational Education and Training: (pp. 165-182). Switzerland: Springer. Domínguez, M.C. & García, P. (2012). Tratamiento didáctico de las competencias básicas. Madrid: Universitas. Domínguez, C., Leví, G., Medina, A. & Ramos, E. (2012). Armonización de competencias entre la educación secundaria y la universidad. Revista RIAICES, 1, 5-13. García Hoz, V. (1988). La práctica de la educación personalizada. Madrid: Rialp. Huber, G.L.; Gürtler, L. & Gento, S. (2018). La aportación de la estadística exploratoria al análisis cualitativo. Perspectiva Educacional, 57(1), 76-97. Huber, G.L. (2017). La formación del profesorado universitario en los países de habla alemana. In A. Medina et al, Nuevas perspectivas en la formación de los profesores (pp. 171-196). Madrid: UNED Jiménez, J.M., González, A.P. y Fandos, M. (2016). Innovación didáctica. In A. Medina y M.C. Domínguez, Didáctica. Formación básica para profesionales de la educación (pp. 325-355). Madrid: Universitas. Lamote, C., & Engels, N. (2010). The development of student teachers’ professional identity. European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(1), 3¬18. Le Boterf, G. (2010). Construire les compétences individuelles et collectives. Paris, Eyrolles. Leithwood, K.A. (1981). The Dimensions of Curriculum Innovation. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 3(1), 25-36. López, E. (2016). La formación docente del profesorado universitario. Bordón, 68 (4), 89-102. Medina, A. et al (2016). Innovación, calidad e internacionalización en la EaD y virtual. XVII Encuentro AIESAD. Madrid: EADTU. Medina, A.; Domínguez, M. C. y Sánchez, C. (2013). Evaluación de las competencias de los estudiantes: modelos y técnicas para la valoración. Revista de Investigación en Educación, 31 (1), 239-256. Medina-R, A.; Cacheiro, M.L. y Medina-M, A. (2016). Características de la práctica docente: el proceso de profesionalización. In A. Medina y M.C. Domínguez, Didáctica. Formación básica para los profesionales de la educación (pp. 361-400). Madrid: Universitas. Mohamed, Z., Valcke, M., & De Wever, B. (2017). Are they ready to teach? student teachers’ readiness for the job with reference to teacher competence frameworks. Journal of Education for Teaching. International research and pedagogy, 120. Valenzuela, B. Huerta, T., Rodríguez, P., Campa, R., Hurtado, A. (2013). Armonización de las competencias docentes y discentes en profesores y estudiantes en educación superior y secundaria. In B. Valenzuela et al, Modelos y prácticas para la mejora del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje universitario (pp. 1-14). México: Pearson.
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