27 SES 02 A, Multicultural and second language education
The research we will present is part of a French research project called e-FRAN1 IDEE (Digital Interactions for Education and Teaching) conducted in Rennes,Brittany, in relation with a research group studying Collectives' Teachers Group and Resources for Students' Autonomy (CERAD). As part of a multidisciplinary group, we are studying if collective work can help teachers develop their use of digital resources in class and if the way they use those resources can foster the development of students' autonomy.
For a better integration of digital uses in schools, we argue it is essential to involve teachers in the designing of resources (National Digital Council, 2012). In foreign languages didactics, research has shown that digital resources "may offer regular opportunities to modify the very logic of teaching/learning practices (Gruson & Sensevy, 2013)". Collaborative research, between teacher-researcher, proposes a framework for reflection on these questions (Lieberman, 1986). Furthermore, we assume that collective designing and sharing of Open Educational Resources (OERs) can facilitate the integration of digital resources into teachers' pratices and contribute to their professional development (Quéré, 2017). In this study, our aim is to analyse more specifically if the use of digital resources, designed collectively, can support the development of students' autonomy.
To conduct this study, we decided to set up a cooperative engineering (Sensevy et al., 2013; Joffredo-LeBrun & al., 2017). This research method, which shares properties with the “Lesson Studies” approach (Miyakawa & Winslow, 2009), is based on the collaboration between teachers, teacher trainers and researchers who implement and reimplement didactic activities on a specific topic (after having analyzed the previous stage of the process) or, in our case, in relation to a particular digital resource.
The collective involved in this study is composed of professionals with different profiles (2 researchers in foreign languages didactics , 3 lower secondary English teachers and 3 PhD students, two of whom are themselves English teachers). Their objective is to produce a digital resource that seeks to foster the development of year 9 students' autonomy in their learning of English. The theme of the resource is based on a visit of Sherlock Holmes' house. The engineering work is carried out over the school year (2017-2018).
To understand how the didactic activity takes place during the implementation of the resource, we use the Joint Action Theory in Didactics (JATD). One of the originalities of JATD is to model the teacher-student relationship as a didactic game involving two players: player A, the student who wants to win the game and player B, the teacher who has to guide him without unveiling the knowledge involved. More precisely, Sensevy (2011) characterizes the learning game (LG) as the teacher's game on the student's game. It is a « succession of moments that are both interrelated and closed on their own (Sensevy, 2007, p. 26) ». These moments are games, in the previous sense of a didactic game, produced by « the need to advance in learning » (ibid.).
Our work follows the line of former comparative studies in foreign languages didactics (Gruson 2013, 2016). In that perspective, we will compare the same didactic situations based on the use of the resource built collectively as it will be implemented in the classes of the teachers involved in the cooperative engineering.
Based on these theoretical tools, we will try, in this presentation, to answer the following questions: What is the students' expected knowledge in each class? What LGs are really offered to students? Do teachers develop common LGs from the same resource? Do these LGs have an impact on the development of autonomy?
For this study, we follow more precisely the work of two teachers, Val and Ginger. Val has been teaching English for nineteen years in a lower secondary school. She uses digital resources quite regularly but is not used to designing digital activities. Ginger has been an English teacher for fourteen years in secondary school. Digital resources are present very regularly in her activities. She is part of several working groups, including a group working on the dissemination of digital practices among language teachers: Group of Pedagogical Integration of the Uses of Digital technology (GIPUN). These two teachers had never worked together before being involved in this cooperative engineering. In order to produce the collective design of the digital resources chosen by the group, group meetings are scheduled regularly (approximately one meeting per month) with all the participants. An online collective space is also available. It enables the participants to share resources identified by teachers as useful for the collective design work. To collect and process our data working sessions are filmed. We will, as well, video record these two teachers in class, knowing that the implementations in class will take place in March-April 2018. This video data will then be reduced into synopses and transcriptions of significant episodes will be made in order to compare the learning games really implemented during the lessons. Collective analyses involving all the participants will be conducted. Interviews conducted with teachers at the beginning of the collective work (June 2017) in order to better understand their visions of autonomy and digital resources will help us better understand their teaching strategies during the lessons.
Up to now, we have identified elements that point to possible proximity in the construction of future learning games. For example, an initial analysis underlines a vision of the concept of autonomy shared by the teachers. The latter agree that pupils can be put in a situation of autonomy provided that teachers define the expectations, such as the elements of knowledge to be activated and the productions to be produced. Right now, the study is under way. It means that we cannot describe in details what our results will be in terms of comparative analyses. However, the terms of the national project expects the group to design a resource accompanied by a teaching scenario. Consequently, based on the analyses of the lessons and the interviews, a second design of the situation relying on the use of the digital resource will be produced. This design including a didactic scenario and all the resources needed to implement this situation in class will be put on an institutional French website (CARTOUN). This platform is dedicated to sharing pedagogical activities designed and uploaded by teachers, or pedagogical experts, for teachers over France. Its stated objectives are to allow the consultation of educational activities, to encourage the exchange of practices or to publish didactic activities based on the use of digital technology.
Conseil National du Numérique. (2012). Permettre le choix du numérique à l'école. Repéré à https://cnnumerique.fr/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/2012-03-06_CNN_AVIS_eEducation.pdf. Gruson, B. (2016). L’action conjointe en didactique des langues : élaboration conceptuelle et méthodologique (Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches). Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest. Gruson, B et Sensevy, G. (2013, juin). The Joint Action Theory in Didactics: A case study in videoconferencing at primary school. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), 1, 216-233, Madison, USA. Repéré à : http://gerrystahl.net/proceedings/cscl2013/cscl2013proceedings1.pdf. Joffredo-LeBrun, S. Morelatto, M. Sensevy, G. & Quilio, S. (2017). Cooperative Engineering in a Joint Action Paradigm. European Educational Research. Lieberman, A. (1986). Collaborative researche: Working with, not working on. Educational leadership, 43(5), 29-32. Miyakawa, T., & Winsløw, C. (2009). Un dispositif japonais pour le travail en équipe d’enseignants: étude collective d’une leçon. Education & Didactique 3(1), 77-90. Quéré, N. (2017). Collective designing and sharing of open educational resources: a study of the French CARTOUN platform. Research-publishing.net. 260-264. doi: 10.14705/rpnet.2017.eurocall2017.723 Sensevy, G., Forest, D., Quilio,S., Morales-Ibarra, G. (2013). Cooperative engineering as a specific design-based research. ZDM The international Journal on Mathematics Education, 1031-1043. Sensevy, G. (2011). Le Sens du Savoir. Éléments pour une théorie de l’action conjointe en didactique. Bruxelles : De Boeck. Sensevy, G., & Mercier, A.(2007). Agir ensemble, l'action didactique conjointe du professeur et des élèves. Rennes, Presses Universitaire de Rennes.
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