25 SES 08, Visual Methods and Researching with Young People
There has been an increasing recognition that new methods are required to successfully involved children in research (Bird et al., 2013). This has led to the exploration of using visual methods in researching with young people (Carrington et al., 2007). In this workshop a range of methods and uses will be explored. Participants will be given the opportunity to experience these methods.
Photovoice (Wang and Burris, 1997) has been adapted to elicit young people’s experience of education and how their view can be different from the adults around them (Capewell and Ralph, 2015). Although traditionally used in communities to understand community health issues it has been adapted to encourage young people to express their experience and identify barriers and enablers when living with a chronic conductive hearing loss. The activity of creating images and writing captions then discussing them with a researcher enables young people to be in control of what is discussed and for them to lead the researcher in understanding what is important to them.
Diamond-ranking (Woolner et al. 2012, 2014; Clark et al., 2013) is a recognised thinking skills tool designed to facilitate talk and encourage people to consider their values on a topic. Participants ranking photographs according to a chosen criterion enables investigation of both current experience and of desires and preferences. Diamond 9 has been developed to engage young people in the research process. The method involves a subset of nine photographs. Diamond ranking is valuable for extracting constructs and facilitating talk. When ranking items – for example, statements, objects or images – the participants are required to make obvious the overarching relationships by which they organize knowledge. In the classroom context, diamond ranking has been used as a tool to elicit pupils’ beliefs because it is considered to be motivating for pupils; it also increases the response rate and the authenticity of their answers (Baumfield et al., 2013; Hopkins, 2008).
US social anthropologist Margaret Mead (1951) was the first scholar to describe the importance of the visual image of teachers. Since the 1950s, a body of research has been published in Europe and the United States, which analyses the historic and modern perspectives of the appearance of the pedagogue. Research, dominated primarily by British and American studies, has been supplemented by a 2012 study of ten nations (Bulgaria, Greece, Mexico, Pakistan, Serbia, Slovenia, England, South Africa, Turkey, and Latvia), in which the drawings and descriptions of the “typical teacher” by 1053 15-year-old pupils were analyzed (Kestere, Wolhuter, Lozano, 2012). Kestere developed the methodology for identifying and comparing the main visual components of the image of the teacher: body (gender, age, skin colour, height, weight, hair, health, and adornment), attire (clothing, jewelry, accessories, and shoes) and non-verbal communication (body language, including gestures and facial expression, position in the classroom). Together with students, Kestere researches visual images of teachers using many types of sources: e.g., photographs, textbooks, fiction books, manuals, movies, press, cartoons, drawings, homepages and toys.
Ribeiro de Castro uses photos and photo analysis in both research in History of Education classes and as a professor in teachers’ training and psychologists’ education, especially when developing disciplines of Research Methodologies. The aim is mainly to use photos as sources of data for research but also as sources to understand family social conditions, school environments and pedagogic models. In Psychology courses she stresses the importance of using photos and private albums to understand familial dynamics and interpersonal relationships, mostly for clinical use. The use of photographs is really very useful as a way of seeing what is often not seen or what is really absent.
The aims of this workshop are to enable participants to understand the range of visual methods which have been used with young people in educational research. There are strong theoretical underpinnings for the use of the images which will be discussed in the workshop. The researchers all have a belief that young people are capable of expressing themselves and analysing their experiences and learning, when provided with the appropriate opportunities. By drawing on research from across Europe (Finland, Latvia, Portugal and UK) this workshop demonstrates the applicability of visual methods in a range of cultures and using different languages. This is an opportunity to talk to researchers active in the field of combing visual methods with researching with children. Through participation in a range of activities, participants will be able to identify the benefits of using visual methods in a range of contexts. There will be the opportunity to discuss the potential pitfalls and how these can be minimised.
The use of specific examples will provide participants with direct experience of the methods that have been used and described. A photovoice activity in which participants individually create images and provide captions which summarise their experience of schools and then discuss the meanings with others provides insight into how the methodology works. The Diamond-ranking activity provides participants with how the methodology works. They will be asked to rank photographs according to a chosen criterion to enable investigation of both current experience and of desires and preferences. There will be opportunity for participants to complete a collaborative diamond ranking task. The participants, working in pairs or threes, cut out pictures and stick them onto a piece of paper in a diamond shape, ranking them by position so that the preferred picture is at the top and the most disliked is at the bottom. The participants also annotate the diamond with comments and explanations. This makes their understanding available for analysis and comparison. In workshop, participants will be asked to draw a typical teacher and their drawings will be compared with images of “typical teachers” in sources created in various countries of the world.
Bird, D., Culley, L. and Lakhanpaul, M. (2013) Why collaborate with children in health research: an analysis of risks and benefits of collaboration with children. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, Education and Practice Edition, 98(2), 42-48. Bolotin, P. and Burnaford, G. (2001) Images of Schoolteachers in America, eds. Mahwah, New Jersey, London: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Capewell, C. and Ralph, S. (2015) Living with Glue Ear: Researching Educational Needs and Listening to the Voices of a Mother and Child. The International Journal of Diverse Identities, 15(1), 11-23. Carrington, S., Allen, K. and Osmolowski, D. (2007). Visual Narrative: A technique to enhance secondary school students’ contribution to the inclusive, socially just school environments – lessons from a box of crayons. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 7(1), 8-15. Clark J, Laing K, Tiplady L, Woolner P. (2013) Making Connections: Theory and Practice of Using Visual Methods to Aid Participation in Research. Newcastle University: Research Centre for Learning and Teaching. Clark-Ibanez, M. (2004) Framing the Social World with Photo-Elicitation interviews. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 1507-1527. Davey, N. (1999). The hermeneutics of seeing. In: Heywood, I. & Sandywell, B. (eds). Interpreting Visual Culture: Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Visual. London: Routledge, 1999. Gasparini, F. & Vick, M. (2006). Picturing the History of Teacher Education: Photographs and Methodology. History of Educational Review, 35 (2), 16–31. Marshall, J. (2007). Image as insight: Visual images in practice-based research. Studies in Art Education, 49 (1), 23–41. Mead, M. (1951) The School in American Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Nóvoa A. Ways of saying, says of seeing: Public images of teachers (19th – 20th Centuries). Paedagogica Historica. 2000. 36 (1): 21–52. Rousmaniere, K. (2001). Questioning the visual in the history of education. History of Education, 30 (2), 109–116. Vick, M. (2000). What Does a Teacher Look Like? Paedagogica Historica, 36 (1), pp. 247–263. Wang, C. and Burris, M.A. (1997). Photovoice: Concept, Methodology, and Use for Participatory Needs Assessment. Health Education & Behavior , 24(3), 369-387. Woolner P, Clark J, Laing K, Thomas U, Tiplady L. (2012) Changing spaces: preparing students and teachers for a new learning environment. Children, Youth and Environments 2012, 22(1), 52-74.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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